That golden age, which, according to the late comedy writers, was not yet slave, should be sought at a very young age. As far as tradition goes, slaves have always existed in countries around the Aegean, where capturing slave traffic was so easy and Phoenicians were the teachers and forerunners.
Homer wore slavery of special prominence in two characters: Aumaus, who opposes bandits and robes outside his own status as a piece of property, and the glorious Auricle. Homer, it is true, deals only with royal courts and great leaders. It is difficult to determine to what extent he saw a relationship in the works and in his hands on a slave farm; However, the poet no doubt regarded the farm work as sincere not as touching but as beneficial. Apart from the newly considered subjects, agriculture was probably almost exclusively in the hands of free people as early as the late ninth century.
At the other end of the scale, the holding classes came to disdain for workers and workers, acquiring the same anti-Nazi approach that saw the noble athletics games as their only worthy life goal. This nobility somehow got the best land, occasionally on all the land within the city-state realm, and brought the landless free people to experience it for them. But it is possible that these heavy farm chests preserved the memory of better days their ancestors once enjoyed, while living in girls, before the relentless polis was founded.
Once the settlement was in full swing, many undoubtedly continued to escape hatred and bondage. And the more the colonies were ready to supply slaves, the easier it was to fill the gaps in the ranks of exploration work, as these colonies lay mostly on beaches where slaves were trapped from the interior. In the Lenin wars against the Lenins, the victors killed the great men and sold the women and children, probably abroad. When spared from the men, they did not keep them as domestic slaves but to work the mines, or held them high ransom.
Because many areas were fully dependent on slave labor, war was too irregular and a source of uncertainty certainly needed; Only trade is guaranteed regularity. Keeping a mature Greek captive as a slave in one's home was undoubtedly difficult and dangerous. In most cases we find that the slaves held in houses or fields were of barbaric origin.
In rural areas where people mostly live, workers have been free for quite some time; Among locals and foci, the youngest in the family used to serve the eldest or eldest. They did not hold slaves until shortly before the Holy War in the fourth century. When Polis developed his full potential he did so through slave labor. And who, as a free man, worked on farms or in a rented town found the idea of citizenship out of reach. Indeed, the free man could hardly find any market for his services because the slaves and the metricans (resident aliens) fulfilled the need. Such a guy preferred to look for a job from day to day to be under a pledge, which was a kind of slavery for him, in that it made him feel dependent.
Where and in which countries did the slaves first come to be servants in households and workers on farms and handicrafts? When and where are the slaves first supervised by slaves? Large organizations that exploit masses of workers, such as mines for example, have probably always been operated by slave laborers.
Slaves came from a variety of sources. Scythians, ghettos, Lydians, Phrygians, Pepelagons, Krians, Syrians filled houses and Greek farms. Careful buyers tried to get every slave to another nation, which was easy to do where only three or four were used. Not sure if the barbarian slave traders drew more on their people or prisoners of war or on slave hunting to supply the market.
In the glamorous days of Greece, even a very cultivated Helen could have been a slave of another Greek who fell into the grip of a powerful enemy or pirate. Once one became a slave, citizenship or high birth was not saved. Fado and Plato both suffered in this fate, the first in his youth, the last when he was already a famous philosopher. They were both redeemed. Occasionally a second husband may speculate on the prospect of redemption. Diogenes stayed with the Corinthian Seniades, later to become a volunteer.
In the fifth century, the average price for a regular slave was two servings, with the mina being equal to one hundred drachmas. In the fourth century, one and a half and five was considered reasonable, which showed that supply was stable and plentiful. Still more slaves would be raised at home to complete their overseas purchases. But breeding slaves were not considered profitable; indeed, slave marriage (little more than concubines and barely tolerated by the gentlemen) was not considered helpful unless the good slaves were desirable More through their children for domestic service and well-being.
One did not expect many of the slave children. Annual attrition was considered ten percent, and one naturally wanted to keep one’s slaves as beneficial animals. One saw a friend of a friend suffering from distress or disappearing without much concern; But one took one slave to the doctor and nursed him, if he died, one lamented and considered it a loss.
We may ask what happened when an area so impoverished that it could no longer afford to buy slaves, especially as the number of freedom-born workers plummeted as they became more loathsome to work. Apparently, the country soon became a waste.
Later, Cappadocia, Friggies and Lydians usually did the baking because of their skill in it. In large estates she worked as superintendent of the others, and of slavery was one of the stewards who was carefully laid down and treated gently and discreetly. Aristotle assumed that slaves entrusted with dealing with the more responsible jobs should be treated fairly, giving them the usual healthy and good food. Larger households needed Dorney Doors to check on things brought in and out. A slave who was no longer useful for another job could well have handled it.
Sophocles' father's slaves & # 39; They are all builders and successful, those of Isocrates & # 39; Dad were all flutist makers. Some of the workshops may employ hundreds of slaves, depending on the business and the state of the periods. The mines had many thousands of slaves, which are the property of the state or of private owners. Citizens worried about the poor existence of these slaves only when they threatened to become dangerous. A document to which you wish Xenophon did not glamorously write to Athenian citizens how profitable it would be to employ more slaves in the mines, for with ten thousand they would take a hundred talents a year, and by increasing that number everyone would be living without work.
As if the number of slaves in homes and attic fields was not enough, Xenophon thinks the state should include at least three slaves in the money mines per citizen, sixty thousand good at that time; So Athens will be even more organized and effective in the war. These proposals are no less stupid than the encouragement given to aliens or resident therapists, who were to lure Athens in large numbers. How expensive it was for Athens to live on this kind of income! One unlucky battle that robs the lives of many civilians would have allowed caregivers to become masters of the state that were already undermined in the literal sense.
These matics were Lydians, Phrygians, and Syrians of origin, as were many of the slaves; In part, they may have been descendants of slaves who were freed, and a number of slaves of domestic mines and Maccabi money, probably released. Xenophon finally wonders whether approval should be sought for his proposals in Dodona and Delphi, and if approved, under the auspices of which gods they should be executed.
It is hard for us to think of Greece being between four and five million free men and ten million slaves, almost every foreign extraction (Hellwald); Of the roof owners who have four times as many slaves as free slaves (Curtis), to say nothing of individual industrial cities like Corinth where the free members were one-tenth of the population; The state of Corinth was supposed to have 460,000 slaves and 40,000 full aegina.
No one has ever been blind to the great dangers this slavery entails. In truth, the masses that sometimes took over entire cities were not slaves as the word used to describe them, but oppressed the natives. The great slave wars in Sicily really came under Roman rule when the Latipondia system greatly increased the number of slaves. Parallel to the second rebellion in Sicily, the slaves in the attic mines, which now become many looted masses, rebelled (about 100 BC), after killing their guards and seizing the Acropolis in Sonomium they continued to destroy the land.
The larger the number of slaves in the state, the more severe the discipline and the desire to escape and the more vengeful revenge. In each war, people feared that large numbers of slaves would break their handcuffs. More than twenty thousand slaves, most of them skilled craftsmen, and hence the most valuable, escaped from their Athenian masters, and were hard pressed in their defeat in Sicily and the conquest of Decalium by King Aggis and his Spartan forces. The strategy of the war included stirring up the enemy slaves for rebellion; Hence anyone who could somehow get along with it would have removed his slaves along with the rest of his family across the border for security when an enemy threatened to invade. The winner of the days of engagement freed the kitchen slaves and brought in their masters.
Even in a time of peace, the people had to bear the consequences of the fact that all the free men in the more developed cities and districts brought labor with all their might. As you can see, there were better and more comfortable conditions in some places, but Batika knew that, as a rule, slaves were mean to their masters. Basically, having a slave is fair by the proximity of his neighbor who was also a slave.
Plato says: Citizens serve each other as voluntary bodyguards. Wealthy city dwellers who have many slaves live without fear because the whole city is ready to help every single person. But if some god had to transfer a fifty-slave owner along with his family and all his property out of town to a wasteland no stranger would help, what a fear he would have his slaves send him. He will have to be nice to some, make promises to them and release them for no reason; He will be flattered by his runs or their victimization.
A slave owner whose slaves knew of a wrong he committed could look upon himself as the most miserable of all men, being a life-long hostage and not in a position to punish them, no matter what they did; Sometimes they might be released because they know it. It follows that an intelligent slave is even considered dangerous, and especially so when he is tainted by the mentality of free citizens.
The fact that the slaves were barbaric or semi-barbaric a priori qualified the treatment they received. This fact also caused Plato and Aristotle to classify them at a low theoretical level even though their motives are not explicitly formulated. That Aristotle was gentle and concealed to them, as his will and last witness testifies, repeats himself in his honor. The slave workers branched out against pity for the masses of people that surrounded themselves, whose lives were worse than death. Laws prevented the Lord from deliberately killing and raping his slaves, perhaps less for their protection than for preventing him from being ignored; Otherwise, he could discipline and abuse them in any way he wanted.
Good luck to all the slaves was the very presence of that most wretched class, the slave mines, who for centuries have been treated in no way in any way possible in humans. They provided only the things necessary to keep them alive and in a certain power; When not at work, they were probably permanently shackled. Even ordinary slaves were often shackled, not for disciplinary reasons but to prevent their escape.
That a slave preferred to be a drug on the farm over being a member of a household in an urban household, undoubtedly stemmed from his generally rural origins, and under his logical sense his share was as tolerable as he could have expected if he had returned home. The shepherd slave was probably treated just as well as a hired hand, because animal husbandry depended so much on his good will.
The herdsmen of Sicily and Lower Italy mentioned by Theocritus were undoubtedly slaves, but still, like Xenophon's farm slaves, had their own property, including sheep and goats, and were able to give beautiful gifts. Arcadians gave lavish events to which they invited both gentlemen and their slaves, served them the same dishes, and mixed their wine in the same bowl (crater). From time to time, the masters served the slaves in solemnity and played dice with them. When the Greeks learned of the Roman Saturnia, which was the custom, they discovered that it was a thoroughly Hellenic holiday.
The common way to deal with slaves, Xenophon said, was to check for misery through hunger, to banish self-esteem by whips, to avoid treatment with fonts and theft by locking everything that might be.
After the Peloponnesian War, Athens slaves were bold and free in their behavior. Their dresses were like those of the poorer Matikis and citizens, so they could hardly be distinguished as they all had quite the same look. They were often better off, thanks to their property, which, judging by the late comedies, was often quite enough. After the defeat of Sharona, the population of Athens intended to free the slaves, raise anxiety about the indices and restore their dignity to the shamed.
During the time of the slavery, the slaves were more courageously vocal than the citizens of many cities; They also seemed to attend the theater, occasionally attending the attic mystery ceremonies, and as the partisan spirit rose, they even made their way to the popular assembly.
In contrast, in highly cultivated Athens, the slave can be at any moment most reminiscent of his true status. Some, Plato says, do not trust their slaves at all, and so often and often they whip them, whereby they really enslave their souls. Moreover, there were also judicial tortures of slaves, to which the Athenians are presumed to have resorted quite frequently. In lawsuits, even in civil lawsuits, a litigant could file his own slaves to testify on his behalf in torture or require his opponents to bring his slaves to court to testify against him in torture.
With regard to his demand that slaves be sacrificed to his victims, the Lecturer calls the Lycorgus, whose crude emotional appeals tell us so much about the court proceeding in the fourth century, calling slave torture by far the most just and appropriate means of obtaining at the bottom of a court case. The Lyocrats thus refused to betray his bad conscience, as if human tendency and affectionate feelings towards his slaves could not play a role. False testimony and false testimony were in Athens at that time. What is certain, once slave torture became legitimate in court proceedings, it was only a matter of time before torture could be applied to non-slaves.
The slave remained a commodity, and occasionally favored him favorably; Like, for example, posing as a pedagogue in charge of the children until she was healthy in adolescence. We must remember that the duty of pedagogy was essentially negative, that is, to protect and protect the child, while the teachers themselves were free men, and especially, although it was possible to hire a free man as a teacher, especially if he was a fellow citizen, it was very difficult to hold him for a long time. Because he was not used to, and hence not fit to live in, this kind of dependency. Choosing from the few or many slaves that best suited to the task should have been fairly easy over the years; Undoubtedly the trust and mutual connection achieved between some masters and slaves, as evidenced by various extracts to outstanding slaves, as well as to faithful sisters who were also slave girls.
Overall, released slaves did not smell good. Obviously, when evil and ungrateful slaves were released, they hated their master above all people because he knew them in their work. In the new attic comedy, the liberated slave appeared quite often as a court accuser (no doubt against his master), as though the pleasure of free speech was included in the charges of access, and what was typical of comedy was probably a routine thing in life. Undoubtedly, the slave so liberated in Lucian's Timon must be liberated to the right of Imperial Rome, as well as Trimlio in Patronius.
Of course, there have been times when the slave can be restrained freely for having mastered some skill in crafts, skills occasionally appear but not necessarily as hereditary in a free Greek family.
And finally, it goes without saying that the slaves performed all the special routine jobs that the state, especially the most organized Athenian state, had to do. They were secretaries, low-ranking officers, police officers, etc. The ambitious free man who had nothing to do with a small office; He was going to be a demagogue or starve. The demo man has only snatched at such offices that he was promised to line his pockets.