Exile Banking – Personal Money for the Wild Investor

Here at Q Wealth, we often receive emails and calls from people who are confused about managing their finances as soon as they become expatriates or non-residents. I am not talking so much about tax preparation or tax returns, but about the practical aspects of cross-border banking.
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For example: Do you need a bank account abroad? What is the difference between a multi-currency account and multiple currency accounts? Do I have to keep my money in the country I live in? Can I still access my online brokerage account from abroad? These are all typical questions asked, and I will answer those and more in this article.
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Let’s put together two typical complex characters, Bill and Mary Expat, who go overseas early and plan to travel frequently. To make things easier, let’s say they’re American. They decided they liked Latin America’s laid-back lifestyle, but they still alternate between retirement and one of the trays The more popular expatriates like San Miguel de Allende in Mexico, or Bucas del Toro in Panama … or maybe they would have liked to go to a more exotic, more advanced place like Colombia or Brazil. They still don’t know. And Bill and Mary are determined to enjoy the journey.

Bank accounts and ATM withdrawals

Bill and Mary begin their journey with several bank accounts in their home state, U.S.A. Like most couples, they have a pair of joint checking accounts, a savings account, a credit consolidation account, and some credit cards.

It is definitely worth keeping these accounts of the home countries. US protests are still useful in many Latin American countries, where they can be redeemed in the friendly neighborhood Casa de Cambio. This is a good way to access cash for things like daily living expenses or home improvement. Typically, the casas de cambio provides a better exchange rate than ATM machines without charging fees and without subject to daily restrictions. But of course before they send you a check instead, they must know you. It is best to refer to an existing client, so ask around “Exile Experts” in your chosen area.

American bank accounts will also help with home account payments. Fixed bills like insurance payments can be automatically charged, while one-time bills may be best paid by mail. Ordinary revenue like Social Security checks can be deposited directly into the U.S. checking account.

Many people do not even know that they have cash withdrawals or daily spending limits at the ATM or their credit cards until the day they urgently need fairly large money. Afraid of building up a large amount of cash at home, they wait until the last minute to withdraw money, assuming that because they have the money in their account, they can withdraw it through their debit cards.

A big mistake! They have to pay their builders cash and the cash facility refuses to spit the money. In addition, many countries have only one or two ATM networks and these networks automatically impose their daily limits.

It is important to understand from this perspective that there are actually three different types of daily limitations that you must face:

o The daily cash withdrawal limit imposed by the bank issuing the card

o Daily purchase limit imposed by the card issuing bank – this applies to non-cash purchases where you sign a card purchase voucher at a retailer.

o Daily cash withdrawal limit imposed by the ATM network owner – This limit is not set by your bank, but by the owner of the actual cash machine in which you make the transaction.

That is, you can ask the bank that issues your card to permanently or temporarily increase your cash withdrawal limit. They might set that at $ 50,000 a day. But most ATMs don’t pay more than $ 500 in a single transaction. In this case, as far as your ticket issuer is concerned, you can make 100 transactions of $ 500 each day before you can reach their limit.

ATM owners have their own boundaries, for a variety of reasons. In Brazil, for example, things are particularly difficult. The nightly retreats are limited to 50 rials, while a taxi across Sao Paulo can easily cost 150 rials. So if you come to Sao Paulo on a red-eye flight, make sure to bring cash and don’t rely on local ATM networks! Argentina and other countries place similar restrictions on ATM withdrawals.

In some countries every other network bank. In other countries (Spain for example) you may find one monopoly network that controls almost all cash machines. They are the worst! If the network owner says no one is allowed to withdraw more than say $ 500, their word is the law. No matter the ticket issuer allows you to withdraw $ 50,000. You get $ 500 a day, no more!

Internet purchases and credit cards

As you embark on a new country without established credit registration, and as a new arrival resident, you may find it difficult to obtain a credit card. So you should also keep credit cards from your home country. But there are some tips and tricks for playing cards correctly.

First, notify your ticket issuer that you will be traveling. Call them in advance. This is important because nowadays, all overseas transactions look suspiciously by automated tracking software used by all banks. If your bank does not know you are overseas, the software will likely stop you from spending $ 500 in Panama. Of course it would be quite embarrassing if you just leave a restaurant with potential business partners in Panama midnight, early in the morning when your bank is closed, and you trust the card to pay the bill.

You may also want to keep a US billing address. This can be a mailbox or a private mailbox address provided by a garment like a UPS or Pakmail store. You can get a phone number that goes with a VOIP provider like Skype. This is important. Be happy to send statements to a foreign address, about 99% of online retailers are not set up to handle US cards with non-US billing addresses. Their systems will automatically detect the number of cards the card is issued in the United States, and the same system will require AVS AVS only works with US addresses, so if you have a US-issued card with a non-US billing address It’s useless for Internet purchases, and for other purchases that your targeting is requested for (some US gas stations, for example)

By the same token, you should be aware that the unique IP address of each computer on the Internet allows the business to see from which country the order is located. If you order something popular with card fraudsters (like a new laptop, digital camera or gold jewelry) using an American card, a US billing address but a Panama IP address, the deal is likely to be presented as a potential fraud. Usually in these cases, you need to pick up the phone and talk directly to the dealer to explain the circumstances so that they can manually bypass their fraudulent practices. Most traders will be happy to do so, but some have simply gained momentum.

Opening a local bank account

At some point you will probably find that you have to deal with the local banking system in the country you are moving to. For example, in most Latin American countries you can now pay your service bills online rather than queuing for 45 minutes to pay cash. But you will need a local bank account to do so.

Bank account opening procedures vary greatly from country to country. Unless you move to a known tax haven & # 39; The banking system is likely to be targeted to locals, and you may need to demonstrate official residence through a local permit or ID before you can even open a local bank account. There are usually exceptions to these rules – but the staff of local banks in small town branches probably won’t know them. It is best to ask local authorities for their recommendations and choose a bank and branch that is used to dealing with expatriates and foreigners.

Either way, before you leave home, try to get a few copies of a bank reference from your home bank that is “who it might worry about” and have stated that you have been a customer for several years and have always operated your account well. These documents will prove to be very helpful in dealing with foreign, domestic and foreign banks. If your home bank says they want to apply for a specific bank reference, explain that you are traveling and you plan to buy overseas assets, but you still do not know in which country you will arrive.

It’s not just the account opening procedures that vary a lot depending on the country you go to. So are the services offered, which may be significantly different from what you are used to at home. Make sure you take time to understand the terms of operation associated with your new account, otherwise your bank may assume one thing while assuming something else entirely. For example, how long do you have to wait after making a deposit before you can write a check against it? In some countries, there are complex value date systems where money may appear in your account, although it is not available to you. If there’s something you don’t understand, ask your bank.

Do you need a private bank account abroad?

Banking services vary greatly, but are rarely of very high quality. You should probably consider opening an account at an offshore bank that specializes in dealing with foreign residents. You can open it in a neutral third country – places like Switzerland, the British Channel Islands, Singapore and Panama are generally good. Big names like Barclays Wealth and HSBC offer these services as well as lots of smaller banks. It should also be possible to open non-resident bank accounts 24 hours a day without the need to travel there. You can then activate your account through internet banking and debit or credit cards.

There are two main reasons why you want to open an offshore account. The first is for convenience – deal with a sophisticated private banker who speaks your language and can offer the range of international services you require. The second is for privacy and property protection – overseas banks offer secrecy and discretion. When you become a non-resident in your home state for tax purposes, you will receive significant tax benefits by transferring your money abroad.

One of the convenient services that overseas banks offer to surfers is the multi-currency bank account. This allows you to save different currencies in the same account. For ease of use, you only have one account number, but you can keep all the major currencies there and transfer them as you wish with a click of the mouse. Another useful service is the so-called InvestLoan that lets you borrow money in one low-interest currency, then reinvest it in a higher-interest currency to make a profit.

Of course, it’s not necessarily valid if you’re moving to a banking center like Panama or the Cayman Islands, but if you’re moving to a high-tax bureaucratic state like Mexico, Brazil or just about anywhere else in Latin America, you’re not & # 39; I don’t want to put all your assets into the local banking system where the government can see them on the radar. You also don’t want to leave them in your home state like the US that will also try to tax you on these assets!

Another consideration when opening your Offshore account is whether to open a personal or corporate account. If privacy is a concern for you, you should usually set up a corporation outside the country and hold the account on behalf of the corporation instead of your personal name. It helps to keep your account under the radar, since in and out transfers will not display your name.

If you want to open a private bank account or a private company or company, there are advisors who can help you. They will explain a number of actions and discuss them, as well as direct you to specific banks that you can contact directly to open accounts. They can also tell you which banks will open accounts for foreign corporations.

A separate brokerage account is usually also a good idea, since most offline banks do not offer excellent brokerage facilities. But there are some. I know, for example, a discounted European outdoor brokerage base in Panama, which allows you instant online access to major global markets such as New York, London and Frankfurt.


Days of our lives on the island of Burqai

We lived our days living on a Burkese island in the Philippines and so can you. Finding your tropical island paradise may not be on your bucket list yet, just before you have done at least some research. But we certainly did.
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After visiting the Philippines for over two decades, we found Burkay one of the best places to experience both relaxing and adventurous experiences. It may not be the place to be when you are 70 or older, unless you like watching tanned bodies and sexy women on the beach. And Burakai is definitely value for money if you plan your vacation well. Finding someone who has experienced Burkay, and is happy to make recommendations as a friend, is worth listening to.
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You have the money, you are finally ready to book your plane ride and accommodation for a trip to one of the most beautiful islands in the world. Get completely excited about packing your swimsuits, hop on a plane and finally experience the look and feel of one of the thirteen burqai powdery white sand beaches.
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There is not an overabundance of American travelers who have the courage to visit a Burqai, but Americans do not criticize and regret it. You haven’t had any trouble finding information for planning a trip on the net with so many options available on the island, especially when it comes to finding accommodation, food and fun activities for everyone’s priority.
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So I see how you can get confused between planning your itinerary with so many options. The first article of Boracay’s first timer will come in very handy as you plan your trip for a perfect vacation in paradise.
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Where’s Burkay?

Where is the Philippines? From our American history you may remember the famous MacArthur who left the Philippines during World War II by saying “I will return.” What he did to liberate the Philippines from the Japanese in World War II. You can still dive on submerged Japanese accidents in the Philippines.
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So America has a history with the Philippines. You will find the Philippines in Asia, South China and East Malaysia. It is a country of thousands of tropical islands, the second largest archipelago in the world and a dream to visit.
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World media is bombarding us with images of Filipinos living in poor conditions on garbage tips near Manila, marine and natural disasters. Unfortunately these exist there, as everywhere, but especially in Third World countries. So why don’t you see the money you spent in Burqai as your donation to help build their country
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Boracay is less than one hour south of Manila. It is just off the northwest edge of Panay Island in the western Visayas area. The easiest way to get to Burqai is via Manila International Airport (NAIA), with an internal connecting flight to Caticlan Airport, followed by a short boat ride to Burqai Island. Daily flights link Manila to Catatiklan, the gateway to Burkese Island. Alternatively, it would be more convenient if you could fly to the largest international airport in Calibo, then take a 90-minute bus ride to Catlan.
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An ordinary bank of navy (outside designed boats) serves Burkay on a 15-minute drive from Katiklan Pier to White Beach. The Philippines will help with dignity and fragile people if needed. This may be their only source of income, so please change with tips. 20 pesos (half a dollar) will suffice, depending on the amount of work they do for you.
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Flights from the United States : Philippine Airlines (PAL) has consistently been the cheapest flight from America, flying directly to Manila from New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco.
Other airlines offer indirect flights to Manila at a higher cost, such as Singapore Airlines, Asia Air, Eva Air and Cathy Pacific.
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Los Angeles Boracay flight time Los Angeles Boracay flight is 14 hours, with a connecting flight and it can be as cheap as $ 1,100 for a refund. Manila (Terminal 3) to Caticlan Airport within an hour, directly. Manila Nino Aquino Airport Burqai Flight 7 miles south of Manila CBD and tends to be very busy and daunting.
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You usually need to change terminals to get on your domestic flight. Flights to Calibo Calibo International Airport, around 68 km from Catalan, therefore a transport north of Catalan will be required. Bus services and taxis are available. You can even arrange a Burkman helicopter to fly you to the Burkai, with luggage weight.
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Flight to Caticlan Airport (Godofredo P. Ramos Airport) Located opposite Burkese Island, Caticlan will be your favorite destination. Upon arrival you can take a tricycle or taxi to the ferry. The weather and other factors affect the location of the ferry services. However Caticlan is a small community and local services will know which shuttle services are available and where they are departing.
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Special flight 2016 LAX to his grandfather

As of November 2015, PAL is advertising $ 780 in LAX to Cebu. Unfortunately, PAL does not fly to Burkani directly from his grandfather, and will require booking with an alternative airline.
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The good news is that you can book a flight back from Cebu to Caticlan (Boracay) for around $ 130 with Cebu Pacific, however you may need to stay at least overnight in Cebu or Island of Pulpo due to connecting times, which are not & # 39; Not so bad. As a matter of fact I would stay at least two days to explore Cebu or Bohol Island as there are some nice places to visit such as Chocolate Hills or the Tarsier Zoo in Lubbock.
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The added benefit of flying to Cebu is that the airport is very easy to navigate, unlike the NAIA Manila airport which can be quite challenging.
See the promotions on their site for details. Entry Requirements for these Philippines are Visa and Entry Requirements for the Philippines: Passport Passport must be valid for at least six months beyond the intended stay period, return ticket / a. No visa is required for stays of up to 30 days;
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Philippine officials will sign your passport for 30 days upon arrival. A visa can be issued on or after 59 days, but there is a cost to extend.
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Getting the best accommodation

One of the great things about Burkese is the number of accommodations that host different types of guests. No matter if you are a backpacker or tourist who wants luxurious accommodations, you can easily find an inn, hotel or resort that will meet your needs.
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For those who prefer less frills, the island offers hostels, hostels and bed and breakfasts that will provide safe, clean and affordable rooms for budget-conscious travelers.
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The white beach, located on the west coast of Burqai, is the largest beach that stretches almost to the island. The White Beach is divided into three parts: Boat Station 1, Boat Station 2 and Boat Station 3. The upper market and expensive hotels are mostly north of Station 1, while the budget hostels are usually located near Station 3. Station 2 is known as the Island Nightlife Center. There are also accommodations at the lower end on the east side of the island near the Bulabog Beach, where a nearly consistent breeze allows for windsurfing and kiteboarding.
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To get a guide or explore Burkay

For your first vacation in Burqai, it is best to take a guided tour. An entire day in a tricycle may cost you like $ 20, but don’t hand over the cash until you end the day.
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There are tourists who like to explore the island yourself as it is a fairly small island. Either way, getting to know the place in person makes it a monumental and more worthwhile trip to the story.
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Great adventures on land and at sea

A good part of your vacation will be spent on the white sand and catching some glorious sunbeams. To make the most of your stay, sign up for some of the exciting adventures the island has to offer.
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Visit the Bulabog Beach to try surfing and windsurfing, a great place for adrenaline rush. A daily trip to Ariel Point to a cliff diving and barbecue spot is an adventure not to be missed. It can be booked through the Burkay Beach Club, where you will receive a discount if you stay there. Enjoy wildlife? The Dream Time theme park near Mount Luho was damaged in Typhoon a few years ago, but I understand that the Go Carts and All-Terrain (ATV) vehicles are still available to tourists, which is a great foundation.

If you enjoy being close to animals there is a small wild life temple near the Dreamtime theme park.

Eat your heart out while enjoying the spectacular scenery

Nothing increases one’s appetite except to cool off on the most beautiful beach in the world. Fortunately, Boracay offers plenty of options for travelers of any kind. Cheap food is plenty for a budget-conscious beach bum. If you are at the Bulabog Beach, why not try the local and international dishes at Happy Home, which serves huge portions of around 150 pesos each, for about $ 3.

For simple but delicious meals, there is Smoke Resto at D & # 39; With another branch along the main road. If you fancy a Mexican or Mexican, head to Tres Amigos at the mall and enjoy wonderful burritos for less than 200 pesos each. Looking for cheap seafood? Look no further than D & # 39; Talipapa station 2, which sells seafood by the pound. They can cook meals for you and as you like, so all you have to do is wait for your food and eat your heart.



Ethereum (ETH) has been driven by a recent surge in aggressive cryptographic markets and has been able to expand its momentum despite the fact that Bitcoin has erased much of its recent earnings overnight.

This bandwidth enabled ETH to decisively drop over $ 200, which is likely to prove to be the main support level in the near future, and any continued speed on altcoinds is likely to allow Ethereum to make significant further gains in the coming days and weeks.

Ethereum will take the previous $ 200 as a Bulls Roar
At the time of writing, Ethereum is trading above 5% at its current price of $ 201, a significant increase from the weekly low of $ 180.

This upward momentum was first triggered earlier this month when the ETH fell to $ 170, subject to strong buybacks, allowing cryptocurrencies to begin its uptrend, which has since risen to $ 200.
Does ETH continue to move higher?
Analysts predict that Ethereum will rise in the near future as the trading room, a popular crypto-analytics group on Twitter, explains that ETH is likely to be between $ 209 and $ 219.

In the short term, it is likely that Ethereum will continue to gain momentum as it has grown amid growing pressure on Bitcoin, which has begun to decline its dominance in the cryptographic markets as altcoins begin to move forward.

BigCheds, a popular cryptocurrency analyst on Twitter, said in a recent tweet that ETH is currently well above its 200-day moving average of $ 200 in the low region, which may be where the cryptographer finds some resistance, slowing current growth.

Tips for choosing a holiday package & # 39; c & # 39;

A holiday that purifies man from all sins is a very sacred journey whose spiritual aspect can be overshadowed when faced with logistical troubles. Therefore choosing the perfect Hajj package is critical to allow you to focus on the spiritual aspect of the journey wholeheartedly.

Here are some aspects to consider when choosing a Hajj package:

1. Choosing an agency registered in a holiday office by a sub-agent increases your chances of a smooth journey. Registered agencies more aware of the latest visa processing laws and regulations can contact a holiday office to solve a problem, they must in the office if pilgrims file a complaint and relate more to regulating airlines, hotels and transportation. They are also cheaper because travel arrangements in Saudi Arabia can only be done by authorized agencies. Sub-agents need to buy services from these agencies and therefore sell the package at a rising price.

2. Despite all the benefits of the above-mentioned authorized agents, you can choose a sub-agent if you have heard good things about them. All authorized agents may not provide good service while some sub-agents are very professional. Therefore, hajj packages provider should be chosen based on referrals.

3. A knowledgeable and experienced guide company in your group is essential. No matter how much information you have accumulated in numbers and lectures, you may be faced with questions you did not expect before. It is also important to know if the travel agency is seeking advice from their guide. For logistical ease, some agents may plan a departure for Arafat and Muzdiyala before the time recommended by Islamic law. Choosing an agency that plans the trip under a respected imam can reduce the risks of taking shortcuts or going out against Sunnah.

4. Make sure the imam does the hajj with the pilgrims of your chosen package. It is difficult to contact the Imam if he is staying at another hotel, traveling on another bus or living in another tent of your own. This problem is especially prevalent in agencies offering a wide range of packages hosted by only one or two imams.

5. Getting a female guide will benefit the pilgrimage nurses.

6. It is worth checking if the travel agency has a full-time employee in the United States and Saudi Arabia. The more an agency relies on external resources, the more likely it is to suffer from mismanagement. Also, the longer the agency has provided holiday services, the more equipped it is to provide a better orderly service.

7. Most of the Hajj packages advertise a price on a New York trip to the Hajda. If you live elsewhere, be sure to include the cost of your home flight to New York when choosing a package. Also add the cost of the holiday allowance and zabia to get an estimate of the exact amount you will spend per person.

8. Comfortable site accommodation is very useful. A hotel close to Haram and Yad e-Nabwi is more important than a hotel's star count as it would cut travel time, save energy and save time by not having to stand in long queues to do voodoo or use the bathroom. It may be preferable in cases to share your room with 4 people at a hotel close to Haram and not to share a room with one other person but a greater distance from the boycott. Furthermore, hotel ratings are according to Saudi government standards that differ from American standards for rating hotels.

9. Don't worry too much if a holiday package does not offer meals in Mecca and Medina. There are many options around Haram to eat and drink between prayer times, but may take a long time to wait in line. Hotel buffets can be a time saver or a big distraction, as people can often spend too much time socializing. However, it is good to have food in Mina and Arafat as the options are limited. If you are holidaying with the family, it is best to choose a package that offers meals throughout the trip.

10. Choosing Hajj & # 39; s packages that land initially in the country can save time on immigration lines. Pilgrims landing on Dede can experience an increase of 14 – 18 hours before leaving for Mecca. However, choosing the package in which Dada's pilgrims land opens many more flight options and may be cheaper. The same is true for leaving Saudi Arabia. A country as an entry or exit port can save a lot of time.

11. Ask the agent about the tent's location. VIP tents are mostly (if not all) a short walk from MART. However, regular tents in the North American camp are a 50-minute walk to one-way mart. In fact, some tents are not even set. They are located beyond huge billboards that say "Mina ends here"!

12. Holiday packages ensure access to private apartments during their stay is an advantage. Small tents with enough space for people to sleep. The pilgrims can then leave their luggage in their rooms during their stay. It also opens up the possibility to use the bathrooms and showers of the room rather than those set up in the Mina camp.

13. Holiday packages that offer a complimentary shuttle service to Lift can help you save money. Taxi fares are rising exponentially during her days. Turning away from profits, a number of people are coming from other cities to work as taxi drivers and may even be lost when trying to drive pilgrims to the lift. Buses are even cheaper to reach. Therefore, a shuttle service provided by your agent will be quick and free.

14. Most of the package deals are SIM card classes. It can also be time-saving. Otherwise you may have to wait in line to get a SIM card.

Considering these logistical issues while choosing the perfect Hajj package, hope your nationwide worries about Hajj & # 39; And allow you to concentrate on prayer for your heart's content.

WildLife temples and Andhra Pradesh National Parks

Geographically, Andhra Pradesh is India's fifth largest state and has the largest coastline extending over 1000 km. It is the only state devoted to two mighty rivers. These are –

1) Krishna River
2) Godwari

In Andhra Pradesh, a wide variety of vegetation enriched by a variety of flora and fauna. In Andhra Pradesh strategically located in the central region of the Indian subcontinent there are some of the most spectacular Indian plants and animals. Its diverse topography from the mountainous ranges of the East Gates and the Almighty, to the shores of the Bay of Bengal supports diverse ecotypes that contribute in turn a variety of floral and fauna forms. The state can be broadly divided into four major biotic districts.

DECCAN board: 53%
Central Plate: 35%
Eastern Holiday Calendar: 11%
Eastern Seaplate: 1%

The type of vegetation found in the country is mostly dry deciduous with a mixture of teak, terminalias, petrocarpus, anugisus, etc. The hills, especially the eastern ghettos, add much to the biodiversity and provide centers of endemism for plants, birds and lesser forms of life. The diverse habitat includes a variety of the total fauna

1) Tiger,
2) Panther,
3) Wolf,
4) wild dog,
5) painted,
6) lazy beats,
7) Gaur,
8) Black Dollar,
9) Incara,
10) In the singles,
11) Nilgai,
12) Cheetah,
13) Samber and number of birds and reptiles.

The long seashore provides the nesting ground for sea turtles & # 39; The back waters of Pulicat Lake are the flamingo feeding area and the gray sedge; The Gudavari and Krishna river estuaries support the mangrove vegetation. There are some rare and endemic plants in the state such as Cycas beddomei, Pterocarpus santalinus, Terminalia pallida, Syzygium alternifolium, Shorea talura, Tumbuggaia Shored, Psilotum nudam etc. & # 39 ;. Similarly, the double bow or radon and gold dress are very rare and endemic to the country.

In Andhra Pradesh a network of 20 temples and four national parks covering an area of ​​11,982 square meters.

Some of the most important settlers and national parks are some details with full details

1) Cavalry Prayer

Location and Area: Adilabad District; 893 sq. M
Flora and Fauna: Dry deciduous teak forests with bamboo
Terminalia, Petrocarpus etc & # 39 ;. Animals found are leopard, panther, gaur, cheetah, sambar, nilgai, barking deer, zingahaha, mouse deer, lazy bear and a variety of birds.

Accessibility: 50 km from Mancherial Railway Station (South Central Railway) 260 km, from Hyderabad Road, nearest airport – Hyderabad

Accommodation: A forest rest house in the forests of Jenna.

Season: November to May.

For details please contact Divisional Forest Officer (WLM) Anna Il


Location and Area: Dry deciduous teak forests along the Pranhita River, a tributary of the Godavari River. The area glides and supports tiger, panther, lazy bear, cheetah, black black, nilgai and a variety of birds including Brahmanic duck, organics, storks and herons.

Accessibility: 70 km, from Mancherial Railway Station (Southern Central Railway) 300 km, from Hyderabad Road. Nearest airport – Hyderabad

Accommodation: A forest rest house in Manz & Real.

Season: November to April

For details, please contact the Forest Department Director.


Location: Adilabad district and Karimangar district, 37 sq. Km
Flora and Fauna: A river forest mixed with teak, terminalia, etc. was noted in the presence of marsh crocodiles in the Gudavari river with the forest containing tiger, panther, langur, rhesus monkey, boar, cheetah, sambar, nilagai and python.

Accessibility: 50 km, from Mancherial train station, 10 km from Manthani in Carrimenger district.

Accommodation: A Forest Rest House in Manz & Real 39

Season: December to April

For details please contact Department of Forests (WLM) Anna Il

4) Inauguration of ETURNAGARAM

Location and Area: Warangal District, 806 Sq

Flora and Fauna: Dry deciduous teak forest with bamboo, Petrocarpus, Enuguis, Buchanania, etc. A country with low hills with tiger, panther, gaur, sambar, cheetah, black buck, and zinga, barking deer, wild boar, wolf, jackal, fox, cat jungle and a variety of birds.

Accessibility: 90 km, from Warangal / Kazipet (Southern Central Railway Station) 250 km, from Hyderabad Road, the nearest airport in Hyderabad.

Accommodation: Forest Cottage and Bedouin Rest House, ITDA Guest House in Athurangarm.

Season: October to May.

For more information, please contact Subdree Forest Department (WLM), Wrangle

5) Inauguration of the RAF

Location and Area: Warangal County; 879 km.

Flora and Fauna: Dry deciduous teak forest with bamboo, maduca, terminalia, petrocarpus, etc. Animals found are leopard, panther, gaur, sambar, nilgai, cheetah, boar, lazy bear, wild dog, painted, jackal, fox and migratory birds such as ducks, longlings, ivies, storks and cormorants.

Accessibility: 60 km, from Wrangal / Kazifet 230 railway station, km from Hyderabad. The nearest airport is Hyderabad

Accommodation: Rest home in the forest and tourists in Fahal.

Season: November to June.

For details, please contact the Sub-Divisional Unit (WLM), Warangal

6) Inauguration of KINNERA SANI SANI

Location and Area: Hammam District; 656 sq. M

Flora and Fauna: Dry deciduous teak forests with bamboo, Terminelias, Enuguis, etc. Lake Kinsensny is very picturesque. The animals found are Tiger, Panther, Gaur, Cheetah, Black Buck, Yakara, Zingha, Sambar, Pig, Wild Dog, Painted, Jackal, Lazy Bear and a variety of ground and water nesting birds. Kinnerasani Lake and water ponds contain an alligator marsh.

Accessibility: 25km, # 39, from Deirdrealem

Accommodation: Rest houses in the Plonze Forest and Cottagodam

Season: October to June

For details please contact the Departmental Forest Officer (WLM) for Plonze


Location and Area: Godavari District, Western Godavari and Hammam; 591 square miles.

Flora and Pune: Dry deciduous teak forests with bamboo, terminalia, petrocarpus, etc., and other species that are compatible with the Eastern Ghat vegetation. The animals found are tiger, panther, gaur, cheetah, cheesecake, sambar, black cup, mouse deer, barking deer, lazy bear, wild dog, painted, jackal, wild boar, crocodile and a variety of birds for both resident and migratory .

Accessibility: 50 km from Rajahmundry Railway Station, Rajahmundry nearest airport

Accommodation: Berg & # 39; s Forest Homes, the Mondri, Mardomili, and Kanapuram.

Season: October to May

For details please contact the Forest Conservatory (WLM) Reg & Mondry.


Location and Area: Eastern Godawari District; 236 square miles

Flora and Fauna: The temple is part of the estuary. Godavari supports the rich growth of mangrove vegetation with plants such as Rhizophora, Avicennia, Sonneratia, Aegiceros etc. Animals found are fisherman's cat, otter, jackal, sea turtle and crocodile astrina. The most common birds are sea gulls, storks, herons, snipers, ducks and flamingos

Accessibility: 20 km, from Kakinada Railway Station and 70 km from Rajahmundry Railway Station. Nearest airport – Regmond & Ahmedri

Accommodation: A forest rest house in Coringa and Reg & Mondry.

Season: October to May

For details please contact the Deputy. Forest Conservation (WLM) Reg & # 39; Mondry

9) Colero's Birthday

Location and Area: Western Goodwary County; 673 square miles

Flora and Fauna: This is a dry, wetland habitat that supports a large variety of waterfowl, granular. Ticks, pots, archery, spot notes, Brahmani ducks, open bank stalwarts, herons, occasional flamingos and gray pelicans.

Accessibility: 60 km drive from Vig & Javada train station.

Accommodations: Rest houses in the Woods & # 39; Awada & Aloro.

Season: October to May

For details please contact the Forestry Division Officer (WLM) Aloro.

10) Krishna SANCTUARY

Location and Area: Krishna and Guntur District; 195 square miles

Flora and Fauna: mangrove forests in the Krishna River estuary, with a fishing cat harbor, otter, jackal, alligator astrina and a variety of seasonal birds.

Accessibility: Rest houses in the Woods & Awada forests.

Season: October to February

For details please contact the Forestry Division Officer (WLM) Aloro.

India tourism and hotel information in India

Touring India is one of the world famous tour options. Vacation recipients travel on Indian consul lines in different countries with different type of tourist visas and passport to India to get a glimpse of its magnificent artistic landscape and landmarks. You can admire the magic of countless monuments, fantastic glasses, beaches, nature temples, high mountains, colorful fairs and festivals in the amazing and magical land called India. To take a free tour of India, there are a number of tour operators in India offering their valuable services.

Medical tourism in India

The healthcare industry in India is already growing by 30 percent a year. The region has shown such potential for growth that Indian Finance Minister Swant Singh recently called on India to become a "global health destination". His enthusiasm for transforming medical tourism in India to earning large foreign currency income has broad-based support among local government and industry. The Ministry of Tourism has shown interest, but so are the many tourism and private sector councils made up of travel agents, tour operators India and hotel companies. Everyone sees healthcare and medical tourism in India as a region with tremendous growth potential.

About India Map

Maps India is the Internet where you search every city map for any part of India. Maps of India covers all over India in different groups, travel maps showing many destinations in a particular city; And many more map topics.


The largest hotel rooms are located in Grand Hyatt in Shanghai's Jin Mao Building, and the highest floor is 350 meters away. The world's largest hotel is MGM Grand Las Vegas in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA with a total of 6,276 rooms (3) as of December 20, 2006. On December 18, 2006, Guinness World Records recorded the world's first hotel in Huntington Highlands, Malaysia ( 1) As the largest hotel in the world, it has a total of 6,118 rooms and is part of the Gentling Highlands Resort and Casino, we offer cheap rates for booking 4 star hotels in India, accommodation in 5 star hotels in India, with our online booking system.

Air India Boeing 747 & # 39; Kanishka, & # 39; Named after Emperor Kanishka, who ruled the Indian state in the second century, sailed across the Atlantic Ocean at 31,000 feet as he flew toward London, in the line of the Heath. The aircraft, VT-FOE registration, operated Flight 182 on its eastbound voyage between India and Canada. Flight 181 from India passed Frankfurt as it traveled west to Toronto, then doubled back to Montreal. The flight number was changed to Flight AI182 for a return trip to London, New Delhi and Bombay. On Toronto Flight 181 to Montreal, therefore, some of the passengers entered Montreal from India while others departed from Toronto en route to India. Across the Atlantic, Air India Flight 182 continued on its way to London, unaware of what was happening. All airlines, of course, are subject to the threat of sabotage, though some are more than others, but most have undergone close scrutiny to protect against such an occurrence. Air India was no exception. An internal conflict in the state of Pong, brought about by extreme demands to a separate nation of Khalistan, created civil unrest in India. Trouble first surfaced in June 1984 in Amritsar with the Indian Army storm on the Amritsar Golden Temple, the Sikhs & # 39; Most sacred of temples.

India trip

India is a vast country and one that hosts a variety of cultures and landscapes. Whether on a spiritual trip, cultural stay or relaxing vacation, it makes sense to plan a trip in India to cover some destinations in a particular area. The state can be divided into north, south, east and west and each of these areas cultivates their own unique cultures. It is not impossible to cover popular tourist destinations such as the Golden Triangle, Regan, Goa and Kerala in a single visit. However, if pressed for time, select a single area and hike it. Trying to pack as many destinations as possible in the four areas during a two-week trip can be exhausting.

South India Travel

Southern India temple towns are the biggest contribution to the world of this area. Kerala backwaters, Nilgiris wildlife sanctuaries, and the beaches of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry, Andaman and Nicobar, and Lakshdip are some of the best you can find in this area of ​​the world. The architectural remains of North Karnataka have attracted tourists from all over the world exploring the lost empire of Vig & # 39; Youngar Bhamphi.

Popular bird watching tours in South India

Southern India has some of the best bird sanctuaries in the world. The landscape of South India with the dense forests and adequate waterfalls is suitable for migratory birds to make it their place of residence.

1. Kumarakum Bird Sanctuary

Located on the banks of Lake Vembanad in Kerala, Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary is a habitat for local birds such as waterfowl, cuckoo, owl, heron, heron and duck, and migratory birds such as the Siberian stork, parrots, yellowish, orc, fly-catcher, tree beetle, marginal, tiger , Heron and lamb. The sanctuary covers 14 acres. Kumarakum village is a cluster of small islands on Wemband Lake and is part of the Kutnad area.

2. Modumalai Wildlife Refuge

Modomalai Wildlife Sanctuary is home to birds like peacock, the gray jungle chicken, the red sting chicken, the gray gray messengers, the Google eye flower, the brush whistle, the big drone with a bat tail, the magpie-robin, the spotted baffle, the barbett Little Green, Pigeon Green, Brown Dove, Gray Hornbill Malabar, Bullbulls, Myanas, etc. Among them, eagles, hawks, buzzards, destroyers, falcons, and the king's minister are ruled, besides some migratory waterbirds. It is also home to many animals.

3. The Vedathangal Bird Sanctuary

The Vedathangal Bird Sanctuary is the oldest bird sanctuary in India, located in Tamil Nadu, India. Every year, a large number of migratory birds such as gray heron, cormorant, tolls, dartar, open flat stork, spoon, white limb, greaves, night herons and gray pelican are visited. It is home to other birds such as cormorants, darters, herons, nappies, open flake stork, white ibis, small grub, Indian teacher, black wings stalks, etc. You can visit this complex en route to Mamelpuram, which is only 53 km away. And 85 km from Nai.

4. Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary

The Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary is a small sanctuary, consisting of six islands on the banks of the Kuwait River, and is very close to the historic town of Srirapatanam in Karnataka. The sanctuary is now a paradise for wildlife enthusiasts, nature lovers and bird watchers. It is home to birds like a painted stork, a stork with an open cork in Asia, a spoonful common, a stork with a neck, a black-headed ibis, a white ibis, a little whistle duck, an Indian roar, a kingville with a stork and other common birds such as nephews, cormorants, Oriental Darter, and herons.

5. Thattekkad Bird Sanctuary

The Thetakad Bird Sanctuary, located on the northern bank of the River Pilar, is one of Kerala's most popular national parks. Dr. Salim Ali, the famous ornithologist designed this temple. It is home to birds such as Indian Roller, Cuckoo, Common Sniper, Crows of Pharaoh, Jungle Night Jar, Kite, Gray Drone and Trojan Malabar etc.

6. Receive a Colto bird
Located in the Andhra Pradesh region of Godavari district, 60 km from Vigada, this picturesque bird sanctuary of India is a great tourist attraction. The main attraction of birds is painted stork, open banknote, gray heron, cormorant, white baby Shiny, sifting, reef herons, ducks, dents, trailers, seeds, barns, mohans, etc.

7. Meng's bird shelter shot:

Located near the Sangardi in Madhak province, Andhra Pradesh (50 km from Hyderabad), and the Manga Bird Shoot, it is a shelter for a variety of roaming feathers as well as domestic feather. The birds include painted stork, herons, plum, rice, cormorants, pooh Ards, black and white studios, banknotes and open stacks, etc.

8. Idoki Wildlife Sanctuary

Located 40 km from Methodopos, just above the rainbow dam, the Idoki Wildlife Sanctuary spans the stories of Thodupuzha and Udumpanchola of the Idoki district spread over 77 square meters. km. With its picturesque lake on three sides of the sanctuary, a majestic rainbow dam across two hills and wildlife roaming like elephants and puppy in herds in semi-evergreen and deciduous forests is a great tourist attraction. It is home to birds such as the jungle chicken, myna, laughing chop, black bulb, peacock, woodpecker, kingfisher, etc. Apart from birds, it is also home to many wildlife.

9. The bird shelter Kunthakulam

The Kunthakulam Bird Sanctuary is located 33 km south of Tirunalawi in Tamil Nadu. Kuntululam is a natural and natural landscape village covered with forests and natural pools. Many birds migrate here from January to April from countries such as Pakistan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, USA and Australia.

10. Quel Refuge

Located 50 km from Manzal Real in Andhra Pradesh, Kawal Sanctuary is home to birds such as peacocks, cartridges, quail, eagles, eagles, kites, owls, minas, pigeons, tree pies, king fish. Also animals like lazy, panther , And tiger, etc. are here.

11. Kadalundi bird shelter

The Kadalundi Bird Sanctuary, located 25 km from Kalitsaw (Koz) Yakod, is a refuge for migratory birds such as terns, gulls, herons, sandpipes, etc. Many migratory birds flock from November and return only At the end of April.

A trip to these birdwatchers in southern India is a magical and adventurous experience.

Overview of Zimbabwe's banking sector (Part One)

Entrepreneurs build their business in the context of an environment they may not be able to control. The resilience of an entrepreneurial venture is experienced and tested by environmental upheavals. Within the environment are forces that may serve as major opportunities or threats to the survival of the entrepreneurial venture. Entrepreneurs need to understand the environment in which they operate to seize emerging opportunities and face potential threats.

This article is used to gain an understanding of the powers in the game and their impact on Zimbabwean banking entrepreneurs. Conducts a brief historical overview of banking in Zimbabwe. The impact of the regulatory and economic environment on the sector is examined. Analysis of the structure of the banking sector enables the basic forces in the industry to be assessed.
historical background

Independence (1980) Zimbabwe had a sophisticated banking and financial market, with commercial banks being mostly foreign-owned. The state had a central bank inherited from the Central Bank of Rhodesia and Maniasland with the dissolution of the federation.

During the first years of independence, the Zimbabwe government did not interfere in the banking industry. There was no nationalization of foreign banks and no restrictive legislative intervention in which sectors to finance or interest rates, despite the socialist national ideology. However, the government has acquired a stake in two banks. It acquired Nedbank & 62% 62% of Rovank at a fair price when the bank withdrew from the country. The decision may have prevented the desire to stabilize the banking system. The bank was renamed Zimbabwe. The state did not interfere much with the bank's activities. The country in 1981 also partnered with the Bank of Credit and International Trade (BCCI) as a 49% shareholder in a new commercial bank, the Bank of Credit and Trade Zimbabwe (BCCZ). It took over and was converted to the Zimbabwe Commercial Bank (CBZ) when BCCI collapsed in 1991 because of allegations of unethical business practices.

This should not be considered nationalization except in accordance with state policy to prevent corporate closures. Shares in both Zimbabwe and CBZ were later diluted to below 25% each.
In the first decade there was no license for a native bank and there is no evidence that the government had any financial reform plan. Harvey (page 6) notes the following as evidence of a lack of a coherent economic reform plan in those years:

– In 1981 the government declared that it would encourage rural banking services, but the plan was not implemented.
– In 1982 and in 1983, a money and finance committee was proposed but never constituted.
Until 1986, no financial reform agenda was mentioned in the National Development Plan for five years.

Harvey argues that the government's consent to intervene in the financial sector can be explained by not wanting to jeopardize the interests of the white population, of which banking was an integral part. The country was exposed to this sector in the population because it dominated agriculture and production, which were the mainstay of the economy. The country has taken a conservative approach to indigenization, as it has learned lessons from other African countries, whose economies have almost collapsed because of white power's powerless eviction without first developing a mechanism for transferring skills and capacity building to the black community. The economic cost of inappropriate intervention was considered too high. Another plausible reason for the policy of non-intervention was that the state, independently, inherited a highly controlled economic policy, with tight exchange control mechanisms, from its predecessor. Because foreign exchange control affected credit control, the government by default had strong control of the sector for both economic and political purposes; Hence he should not have interfered.

Financial Reforms

However, after 1987, the government, for examining multilateral lenders, launched an Economic and Structural Adjustment Program (ESAP). As part of this program, the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe (RBZ) has begun to recommend financial reforms through liberalization and regulation. She argued that the oligopoly in banking and competition, deprived the selection and quality of service, innovation and efficiency sectors. As a result, as early as 1994, RBZ's annual report indicates the desire for greater competition and efficiency in the banking sector, leading to banking reforms and new legislation that will allow:

– Enable careful supervision of banks according to international best practices
– Enable both off-site banking checks and increase RBZ bank oversight and
– Improve competition, innovation and improve public service from banks.

The Registrar of Banks then began, in collaboration with the RBZ, to issue licenses to new players as the financial sector opened. From the mid-1990s until December 2003, entrepreneurial activity in the financial sector occurred in the establishment of native-owned banks. The graph below shows the trend in numbers of financial institutions by category, which has been operating since 1994. The trend shows an initial increase in merchant banks and discount houses followed by a decline. The growth in commercial banks was slow at first, gaining momentum around 1999. The decline in merchant and discount banks was due to their conversion, usually to commercial banks.

Source: RBZ reports

Various entrepreneurs used a variety of methods to penetrate the field of financial services. Some began with consulting services and then upgraded to merchant banks, while others started at stock brokers' offices that were expanded to discount houses.

From the beginning of the financial services liberalization until 1997, there was a marked absence of locally owned commercial banks. Some of the reasons were:

– Conservative licensing policy by the Registrar of Financial Institutions because it was dangerous for licensing indigenous commercial banks without legislative experience and banking supervision.
– Banking entrepreneurs chose non-banking financial institutions as these were less expensive in terms of both initial capital and working capital requirements. For example, a merchant bank would require fewer employees, would not need banking halls, and would not have to deal with small, expensive retail deposits, which would reduce overhead and reduce profit logging time. If so, there was a rapid rise in non-banking financial institutions during this time, for example, by 1995, five of the ten merchant banks had begun in the previous two years. This has become the entry route of choice in commercial banking for some, for example the State Bank, the NMB Bank and the Trust Bank.

Some foreign banks were expected to enter the market even after the financial reforms, but this did not occur, probably due to the minimum 30% domestic holding limit. The stringent controls in foreign currency could also play a role, as did the cautious approach taken by licensing authorities. Existing foreign banks were not required to shed some of their holdings even though Barclay Bank did so through listing on the local stock exchange.

Harvey argues that financial liberalization assumes that removing a direction for loans assumes that banks will be able to lend automatically on a commercial basis. But he argues that banks may not have this ability because they are affected by borrowers & # 39; Inability to grant loans due to currency or price control restrictions. Similarly, a positive real interest rate will usually increase bank deposits and increase financial intermediation, but this logic incorrectly assumes that banks will always lend to more efficiency. New does not imply increased competition because it assumes that the new banks will be able to attract competent management and that the legislation and supervision of the banks will be sufficient to prevent fraud and thus prevent the collapse of banks and the resulting economic crisis. Unfortunately, his concerns did not address the financial sector reform at the same time, .

Operating environment

Any entrepreneurial activity is limited or aided in its operating environment. This chapter analyzes the prevailing environment in Zimbabwe that could affect the banking sector.

Political legislation

The political environment in the 1990s was stable but became volatile after 1998, mainly due to the following factors:

– Compensation without budgets for veterans of war after they attacked the state in November 1997. This put a great strain on the economy and the result was a profit on the dollar. As a result, the Zimbabwean dollar depreciated by 75% as the market saw the consequences of the government decision. That day was recognized as the beginning of the severe downturn in the country's economy and was nicknamed "Black Friday." This depreciation has become a catalyst for continued inflation. A month later, violent food riots followed.
– Improperly planned agrarian land reform launched in 1998, where supposedly white commercial farmers were evacuated and replaced by blacks regardless of land or compensation systems. This has led to a significant decline in agricultural productivity, which is largely dependent on agriculture. The manner in which land was divided angered the international community, which it said was racially and politically motivated. International donors have withdrawn support for the program.
– An unarmed military invasion, in the name of a sovereign legitimation campaign, to protect the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1998, has caused the country massive costs with no apparent benefit to itself and
– Elections that the international community allegedly held in 2000, 2003 and 2008.

These factors have led to international isolation, significantly reducing the flow of foreign exchange and foreign direct investment in the country. Investors' confidence has been severely eroded. Agriculture and tourism, traditionally, are huge foreign exchange earners.

In the first post-independence decade, the Banking Act (1965) was the primary legislative framework. Because this was enacted when most of the foreign-owned commercial banks had no provisions on prudent loans, domestic loans, some of the shareholder's money that could be lent to a single borrower, defining risk assets, and there was no provision for bank testing.

The Banking Law (24:01), which came into force in September 1999, was the peak of RBZ's desire for success. Liberalization and the downgrading of financial services. This law regulates commercial banks, merchant banks and discount houses. Entrance barriers were removed which led to increased competition. The deregulation also allowed some benchmark banks to operate in non-core services. This latitude does not appear to be well delimited and hence presented opportunities for risk taking. The RBZ advocated this regulation as a way of segmenting the financial sector as well as improving efficiency. (RBZ, 2000: 4.) These two factors presented opportunities for indigenous bankers to initiate their own business in the industry. The law was updated and re-released as of Chapter 24:20, August 2000. Increasing competition has led to the introduction of new products and services, such as electronic banking and in-store banking. This entrepreneurial activity has resulted in "deepening and sophistication of the financial sector" (RBZ, 2000: 5).

As part of the financial reform, in September 1999, the Reserve Bank Law was passed (22:15).

Its main purpose was to strengthen the Bank's supervisory role through:
– Establish precautionary standards within which banks operate
– Monitoring both banks and off-site
– Enforcing sanctions and, if necessary, placing them under treasures
– Investigate banking institutions wherever needed.

This law still had flaws as Dr. Zumba, the then RBZ governor, argued that it was necessary for the RBZ to be responsible for both licensing and supervision, as "the final sanction available to the banking supervisor is the knowledge of the banking sector that the license issued will be revoked for breach But the government seems to have opposed it until January 2004. Arguably, this lack could have given some bankers the impression that nothing would happen to their licenses. Dr. Zumba, in maintaining the RBZ's role In holding the management of the banks, directors and shareholders responsible for the viability of the banks, he stated that it is not the job or intention of the RBZ to "manage banks to finance and direct its operations End daily. "

It seems that his view continues to be significantly different from this orthodox view, hence the evidence of micromania observed in the sector since December 2003.
In November 2001, the problematic and disruptive banking policy, which was drafted during the previous years, became. One of its intended objectives was that "the policy enhances regulatory transparency, accountability and ensures that regulatory responses are implemented fairly and consistently." The prevailing view in the market is that this policy, when implemented after 2003, certainly suffers as measured against these ideals. The degree of transparency and exclusion of vulnerable banks in ZABG can be tackled.

A new governor of the RBZ was appointed in December 2003 when the economy was in free fall. He made significant changes to monetary policy, causing the banking sector to shake. The RBZ was finally authorized to act as the Licensing and Regulatory Authority for Financial Institutions in January 2004. The regulatory environment has been reviewed and significant amendments have been made to financial sector laws.

The Financial Institutions Decision Act (2004) was enacted. As a result of the new regulatory environment, several financial institutions found themselves in distress. The RBZ placed seven institutions in the treasury while one was closed and another was disbanded.

In January 2005, three of the distressed banks were incorporated because of the authority of the troubled financial institutions law to establish a new institution, Zimbabwe Allied Banking Group (ZABG). It is suspected that these banks did not return funds transferred to them by the RBZ. The institutions affected were Trust Bank, Royal Bank and Barbican Bank. Shareholders appealed and won the seizure of their assets in the Supreme Court ruling that ZABG was trading illegally purchased assets. These bankers contacted the finance minister and lost their appeal. Then in late 2006, they approached the courts as the law provided. Finally starting in April 2010 RBZ finally agreed to return the "stolen assets".

Another step taken by the new governor was to force financial sector management changes, which led to the founders of most entrepreneurial banks having to exit their own companies under varying degrees. Some fled the country in danger of being arrested. Re-directors of banks.

Economic environment

Economically, the country was stable until the mid-1990s, but a decline began around 1997-1998, mainly due to political decisions made at that time, as already discussed. Economic policy is driven by political considerations. As a result, the withdrawal of multinational donors and the state was isolated. At the same time, drought hit the country in the 2001-2002 seasons, exacerbating the detrimental effect of farm evacuation on crop production. A reduction in this production had a negative impact on banks that financed agriculture. The disruptions in commercial agriculture and the concomitant decline in food production have resulted in a safe position of food. For the past 12 years, the country has had to import corn, further straining the country's foreign currency resources.

Another effect of the agrarian reform program was that most farmers borrowing money from banks could not provide the loans, but the government, which took over their business, refused to take on the responsibility for the loans. By not bringing farmers' compensation quickly and fairly, farmers became impractical to service the loans. The banks were therefore exposed to these bad loans.

The net result was an increase in inflation, closures of companies that resulted in high unemployment, a shortage of foreign currency as international financial sources dried up and food shortages. The shortage of foreign currency led to a shortage of fuel, which in turn reduced industrial production. As a result, gross domestic product (GDP) has been declining since 1997. A negative economic environment means a reduction in banking activity as industrial activity has diminished and banking services have been paralleled rather than in the official market.

As illustrated in the chart below, inflation rose to a peak of 630% in January 2003. After a brief rejection, the upward trend continued to rise to 1729% by February 2007. The country then entered a period of hyper-unheard-of inflation. Period. Inflation underlines banks. Some argue that the inflation rate has risen because currency depreciation has not been accompanied by a decline in the budget deficit. Hyperinflation results in an increase in the interest rate while the value of a collateral security falls, resulting in mismatches of assets liabilities. It also increases non-performing loans as more people fail to give their loans.

Effectively, by 2001, most banks had adopted a conservative lending strategy, for example, with advances for the banking sector accounting for only 21.7% of all industrial assets compared to 31.1% the previous year. Banks have taken volatile non-interest income. Some began trading in the parallel foreign exchange market, sometimes clashing with the RBZ.

In the last half of 2003 there was a severe cash shortage. People stopped using banks as intermediaries because they weren't sure they could access their cash whenever they needed it. This reduced the deposit base for banks. Due to the short-term repayment profile of the deposit base, banks are generally unable to invest much of their money in longer-term assets and therefore were most liquid by mid-2003. However, in 2003, due to customer demand to return inflationary returns, most indigenous banks resorted to speculative investments , Which yielded higher yields.

These speculative activities, especially on non-core banking activities, led to exponential growth in the financial sector. For example, one bank had its asset base to grow from $ 200 billion ($ 50 million) to $ 800 billion ($ 200 million) within a year.

However, bankers have argued that what a governor calls a speculative non-core business is considered the best practice in the world's most advanced banking systems. According to them, it is not unusual for banks to take capital positions in non-banking institutions that they have borrowed money to protect their investments. Examples have been given to banks such as Nedbank (RSA) and JP Morgan (USA) that control huge real estate investments in their portfolios. Bankers convincingly argue that these investments are sometimes used to hedge against inflation.

The RBZ governor's directive to banks to cancel their positions overnight, and the immediate withdrawal of bank accommodation support by the RBZ, triggered a crisis that led to significant asset liability mismatches and liquidity distress for most banks. Property prices and the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange have collapsed at the same time because of the huge sale of banks trying to cover their positions. The loss of value in the stock market means the loss of the collateral value, which most banks held in place of prior loans.

During this period Zimbabwe remained in debt, as most of its foreign debt was not in the services or not in the services. The exacerbation of the balance of payments (BOP) as a result of exerting pressure on the foreign exchange reserves and estimated currency. Total government debt rose from $ 7.2 billion (1990) to $ 2.8 trillion (2004). This increase in domestic debt is due to high budget deficits and a decrease in international financing.


Because of the volatile economy after the 1990s, the population became quite mobile with a significant number of professionals migrating for economic reasons. Internet TV and satellite have made the world a truly global village. Customers demanded the same level of service excellence that they were exposed to worldwide. This has made service quality a distinct advantage. There was also a demand for banks to invest heavily in technology systems.

The growing cost of doing business in a hyperinflationary environment has led to high unemployment and the collapse of real income. As Zimbabwe's supreme acumen (2005: B14) has pointed out, a direct consequence of the hyperinflationary environment is "the exchange of widespread currencies, suggesting that the Zimbabwean dollar is giving up its function as a store of value, unit of account and exchange medium" to more stable foreign currencies.

During this period, a wealthy native segment of the company was discovered, which was rich in cash but avoided patronizing banks. The corresponding emerging market for foreign exchange and cash during the cash crisis strengthened this. Effectively, this has reduced banks' customer base while more banks have entered the market. Thus, there was aggressive competition in a dwindling market.

Socioeconomic costs related to hyperinflation include: erosion of purchasing power parity, increase in business planning and budgeting uncertainty, reduction in disposable income, speculative activities that divert resources from producer activity, pressure on local exchange rates due to rising demand. About saving. During this period, in order to increase income, there was an increase in cross-border trade as well as brokering of goods by people imported from China, Malaysia and Dubai. This meant that imported substitutes for local products increased competition, adversely affecting the local industry.

As more banks entered the market, which suffered from major brain drain for financial reasons, it was evident that many inexperienced bankers were being thrown to the deep end. For example, the founding directors of ENG Asset Management had less than five years of experience in financial services and yet ENG was the fastest growing financial institution by 2003. It was suggested that its failure in December 2003 was due to youth jealousy, greed and lack of experience. The breakdown of ENG has affected some financial institutions that were exposed to it financially, as well as by canceling the flight of depositors which led to the collapse of some indigenous banks.

Choosing the right pool table for yourself

There is something to be said about buying the right pool table. Buying a pool table is very similar to buying a car. In many ways you can link the entire pool industry to the automotive industry. It's amazing, how many manufacturers and retailers of our pool tables can learn from the reliable car industry. There are dozens of different manufacturers in different countries. Then, you have to choose where you are going to purchase your pool table. Do you decide to purchase a licensed dealer or a small timer in his garage? In it, you will notice that there are several different designs and sizes. There is a wide variety of choices in raw materials from which it is built. You even have to decide which options you want, including: stains, fabric, mirrors and accessories. Are you going to buy a new or used one? And the list goes on.

The recommendation to purchase a new one is always the best. Why? For a moment, forget about the different qualities and brands that exist. Now, really consider the disadvantages of buying a new pool table. There is just one real drawback, price. If you are considering buying a pool table and you are driven by price and price alone; So it may be best for you to settle for something used. However, if you can wait, if you can take some time to slow down the urge of purchase now; Then you will notice that you will give all the benefits that come with buying new. Remember that there are many brands and qualities. You will abandon personalization, quality, generation, responsibility and guarantees. Need to say something else? it's clear.

Buying a pool table is a huge expense. You don't just have to compromise, whether it's a used stock or a retailer stock, because it's cheaper. You wouldn't settle for a car you don't want just because it's cheap, right? Maybe, but you know what you want. You know what you like. Build it and be part of the process. This will be something you can pass on to your children's children. However, there are certain instances that buying stock or used items may make more sense. Just know what's right for you.

Okay, so what's the best pool table out there? That is up for debate. I worked, and saw, almost everything there was over the years. Some of the other large ones are firewood. In general, if I'm talking, I would recommend that you purchase something manufactured in the United States, use hardwood under construction and contain Brazilian or Italian slate in three-part form.

As a side note: tables from China just aren't good. Slate from China just isn't good. If you think slate is just slate; So tell the many customers who made the mistake of rebuilding these frames, replacing the slate and new parts that eventually cost them more money than they paid for the whole new desk. Chinese slate is stiff and hard and does not allow it to shrink so it cracks and breaks easily. Their pool tables are made in crowds on the "line" with stains and finishes sprayed. Sure they look great. They may even play fine for a while, but these finishes crack and the cheap woods used, distort. It also doesn't take long for that to happen.

There is also a difference in U.S. made and built in the U.S. There are many companies in the state that claim to have been made in the United States but are actually complex only here. I don't buy from anyone like that. Do the research, talk to the right people and educate yourself. I can list a lot of American manufacturers for you, but it will sit and take away from the value in product research. Let’s try and remember that this is more of a process than an impulse purchase.

One-piece slate tables are dated to the house. The bars are nice, but that's not what you want in your home. First, who wants to move it? No one does. Second, they simply cannot achieve the same level of accuracy that can get a three-piece slate. General leveling is all you get with one-piece slate and three slate pieces not only give you that, but it also adds a subtle tuning element that will hold this level for longer and will also resist distortion.

Finding the right manufacturer and retailer will take time. Find the best one that fits your budget and, most importantly, fit your needs. The internet can give you the ideas, but you have to go out there and actually see the product. Take your time. Find what works best. Remember it's your money.

Size and style are entirely up to you. There is nothing here that anyone can do to influence these. How much space do you have? This will help you gauge the size that will fit into your current home. Think about it carefully. Remember, as Americans, we move often. What might fit into your current home may not fit into your next home. What decor do you have and display in your home? Is traditional look, contemporary design or tournament style right for you and your home? There may be options on the pool table from the legs, the frame (arched, no bow, double arch) and the railing edges (routed, plain, curled). All these things must be taken into account. Go outside and see them!

There are more common types of forests used to make pool tables. In general, you will see a particle board with veneer and laminate, poplar (or colored wood), oak (white or red), hard white maple, hickory, walnut, mahogany, or some other exotic woods. There are tables made of marble, car parts, metal and other strange materials. Your standard hardwoods, on the other hand, will be of oak or maple for most traditional models and laminate will usually be used in modern tournament style corner tables. General rule of thumb: Stay with the regular forest and work your way up.

Which of these are important to you? Which ones aren't? In general, your hard trees are going to take a really long time. Just another important note about "hardwood", poplar is technically considered a hardwood, but most do not recognize it. It's soft and winding even if pressed together in layers. Don't be confused by the sales person. Tournament style tables are almost all made of particle board with high quality or low laminate. Don't let that stop you from buying one because a particle is not that big. It's not & # 39 ;, but some good branded things make it a good table.

There are lots of different spots and finishes available nowadays. The stain is actually the color they produce the wood while the finish is the one that goes over it for protection and shine. The stain colors range from natural and light colors, all the way to dark and black. Finishes are usually only available in a few different options, with matte, semi-gloss and high gloss being the most popular. These two items are related to your personal desires and your design. Check them all out, especially in the face of your fabric color options.

No more traditional green canvas days. There are dozens of colors available now and you are not limited to the once green and blue. There are different types of fabric though. They will fall into two types: wool and weave.

Woolen cloth, or nap cloth, is your standard in home and leisure fabric. Most retailers include this standard heavyweight in table buying. Very rarely will you see it in a pool hall unless the owner is cheap. This fabric is usually a nylon and wool blend. This is sometimes called a nap fabric because it has micro-fibers that resemble carpet. Professionals stay away from this fabric because it does not pull the slate tightly with less speed and accuracy, it tends to the balls, the balls will insert slots and allow it to "sway".

Woolen fabric is also a similar blend with a much higher wool content. These things are the best of the best. It's elastic enough to stretch to incredible strength, giving the game extreme precision and speed that are consistent enough to allow professionals to maintain position throughout their game. It's not rolled and torn, like his brother's wool, and he's heavy and durable that extends his life in most scenarios. If you have the extra money, get it! Don't look for fabric, but know that there really is only one real manufacturer and the other woolen wool brands are simply cheap knockoffs.

The mirrors come in many different materials and styles. You will see round mirrors and diamonds made of plastic, mother of pearl, stones and metals such as brass and chrome. You can get them in different colors or show them a double diamond. The most common double diamond style will consist of a gem surrounded by gemstones. It gives the pool table a completely different look and feel.

Then we come to accessories. They are what they are and most often you won't get a kit with your desk coming straight out of China and generally sucking. This is fine even though these are the items that start. Naturally, you want the best you can get with your purchase, but don't let someone tell you that their desk is better because it has better accessories. Once you learn the game and get more involved you will appreciate and understand the value of equipment upgrades over time. Personally, if the bullets are not real and the clues are not American fair; So I don't want them. However, they get a high price and are not required until after you get the feel for the game and want better gear.

So the last thing to mention while looking for the perfect pool table is the warranty and guarantees. why is it important? Simply, if the manufacturer does not back up their product for life, and a retailer does not support its work with a lifetime warranty; So how useful is the product and service provided. Remember generations? How can I be expected to do this if the manufacturer and seller do not even believe in their product? It is difficult to find the right combination from the dealer for the dealer, but they are there. If you can't offer these two simple things, you shouldn't be in the business at all. Forget about them.

If the brand is right, call the manufacturer and tell them you want their product without the retailers & # 39; And tell them why. If the retailer is right and the brand is wrong then you may need to explore other options with them or find another brand.

It's all about you and that's the insight into your analysis. In the end, you have to decide what is right for you in brand, cost, quality and style.

Buenos Aires: Tourist Paradise

From the beautiful botanical gardens to the awe-inspiring theaters interwoven with Argentina's culture, it's the capital and largest city in Argentina. It is a coastal city rich in cultural heritage. For those who want to study Spanish lessons in Buenos Aires for those who are willing to venture outside – this city has it all!

Lush green gardens

The beautiful Botanical Garden is located in the Palermo neighborhood of Buenos Aires. It is triangular in shape and holds more than 5000 species of plants, trees and shrubs aesthetically designed for three unique landscaping landscapes.

The Japanese Garden is another unique masterpiece of its kind in the world. The atmosphere is really peaceful and it's a great place if you want to stay away from the hustle and bustle of downtown.

Get into the culture

For tourists who are more interested in culture, here! You won't be disappointed here. Took Spanish lessons in a great way to assimilate yourself in culture. Understanding language is the key to understanding culture. It is known for well-designed Spanish lessons that will give you an edge in your speaking and writing skills.

Buenos Aires thrives with theaters – the 40 odd theaters featuring plays, opera, musicals and music reviews. The Colon Theater is considered the largest opera house of Buenos Aires and is considered the five best theaters in the world.

Visual art has been part of the tradition in Buenos Aires for a long time. Art galleries, museums and cultural centers regularly host exhibitions, gallery nights and fairs. The famous annual art galleries and cultural events such as ArteBA and La Noche Del Museos provide a great learning experience.

Argentina is the birthplace of tango music. Tango was recently announced as part of the world's cultural heritage and there are institutes that teach this form of music.

to get there

So it was decided, do you want to spend the next holidays in this charming city?

Getting to Buenos Aires is easy. There are regular domestic and international flights to the main airport city. A train, ferry or city trip are other alternatives, but no matter how you get there, you will definitely love your stay and everything this shelter has to offer. For more information, visit the site.

History of Austria Airlines at JFK

1. Return to JFK:

Two decades after Austrian Airlines launched the original, but unsuccessful, transatlantic service to New York – a joint operation with its Belgian Belgian Airways grandfather, inaugurated on April 1, 1969, with an OE-LBA registered Boeing 707-320 that made a stopover in Brussels . Returned to the United States on March 26, 1989, this time with OE-LAA Sports Registration for Airbus A-310-300. The event not only featured intercontinental service and its lane system, but also aircrafts with the first three-cabin cabin configuration for the fleet. Unlike previous experience, it proved successful, but marked the beginning of two more decades of flexibility, paved with a number of aircraft types, alliances and strategies of airlines, terminals, handling companies and computer systems. That's her story.

2. JFK Evolution Station:

Initial training, held at Austrian Airlines & # 39; North America headquarters in Wheatstone, New York, and transferred by Peter "Luigi & Hobner" starting February 6, 1989, or six weeks before the inaugural flight, and his curriculum included "Passenger I" and "Adios Check" courses -In ". .

Austria Airlines & # 39; JFK's first location, the eastern wing of an internationally existing no-longer-entry building, was a joint facility with Iceland and encompassed five Austria-specific check-in counters equipped with computers, automated internal transit printers and laser-scan luggage tags. , And the Joint Upper Party Saga Lounge.

Australian workers who were fully employed and trained by Austrians and were equipped with their uniforms. Their crews performed all onshore duties: passenger services, ticket sales, lost and found, load control, management, supervision and management, while Icelandair Company members served on the ramp, aircraft and cargo service supervision, cargo and mail loading.

However, the success of the operation relied on the equipment that served it and it was only Airbus Industry's decision to offer a lower-capacity, lower-body version of its A-300 signature that transformed the transatlantic operation returned with the A-310.

Long-range, dual-motor, wide-body, technology-parallel design offered the same dual-range range and comfort as the fourth-comparator 747 or DC-10 and L-1011 tricycles, but simultaneously offered Reduced ability to facilitate profitable operations throughout the year. Because of the larger Austrian market size, the larger 747, DC-10 or L-1011 would have otherwise acted in a loss outside of the high summer travel season. Each of the other long-range planes, including the Boeing 707 and McDonnell-Douglas DC-8, introduced first-stage, first-generation, fuel-efficient four-phase technology with four engines in the early 1960s and would have been banned from American service unless replaced or jumped Completely in the engine. The A-310 greatly made Austrian Airlines & # 39; The Vienna-New York route area is long and sparse possible.

The initial 1989 schedule offered six weekly frequencies during the summer and five in the winter, at which time two A-310-300s served New York and Tokyo, the latter with a stopover in Moscow. Alternatively, they have also increased the longer-term routes, such as those for Tel Aviv, Istanbul and Tehran.

During the first six months of JFK operations, aircraft never experienced excessive delay due to timing, which resulted in exemplary performance on time.

The flight service naturally represented a large portion of the airline’s expenses. As a result, many suppliers have begun to reduce this to reduce costs. Austrian Airlines, however, remains unique throughout the world characterized by snacks and paper cups by providing printed menus, convenience kits, china service, alcoholic beverages, and headphones in the carriages of its transatlantic flights to and from Vienna.

However, because of the A-310's short fuselage, the cargo area with the lower deck was limited, with the forward grip usually containing cargo unit (ULD) load devices and the rear of the cargo itself, which was usually limited to two surfaces. And a single AKE unit.

Although load factors in the New York-Vienna area were initially low, they increased steadily until most flights were full. Large tour groups accounted for a growing portion of the passenger mix, along with the expected connecting passengers, who were able to take advantage of the expanding Vienna hub. This was the ultimate testimony to a carrier when a passenger chose to fly with him and establish a connection at her home airport versus nonstop travel with a national carrier.

As a "second attempt" across the Atlantic, the Austrian airline's intercontinental service eventually succeeded to 300 in New York.

With the purchase of the third listed A-310-300, OE-LAC, Austrian Airlines thought of servicing another American gateway in the spring of 1991, such as Los Angeles, but the A-310-300 & # 39; s 11 The duration of your flight prevented this reality. Although Chicago is considered an alternative, Boeing 767-200ER's non-stop US service to Vienna would have banned competition since O & # 39; Hare was the second-biggest focus, leaving Washington-Dulles as the only possible alternative.

For the European continental network, the gross weight delivery of McDonnell-Douglas MD-83 was ordered for delivery in 1991 and some existing MD-81 were converted to this standard, increasing their range and load capabilities. Two additional Fokker F.50s were booked for long and thin international domestic routes.

During the five years between 1989 and 1994, Austrian Airlines operated independently at JFK, offering at least four weekly departures during the winter and some seven during the summer.

3. Delta air lines code:

Changing market conditions led to Austria a different strategy at JFK. For example, it sought to align a line with a domestic airline in the US to obtain feeds for its transatlantic flights. In 1994, it entered into a marketing agreement with Delta Air Lines, under which it placed its "operating system" code on Delta operators. Delta itself has mutually positioned its own "DL" designers for Austrian services, and two Delta flight attendants, dressed in their corporate uniform, initially served in its A-310 cabins to and from Vienna.

Although the financial benefit of the idea was slow to materialize, the aircraft eventually achieved high load factors, carrying Austria and Delta passengers from two dozen US cities through New York to Vienna, most often without passage.

In order to reduce land handling costs and gain synergistic benefits between freight companies, Austria Airlines moved its operations to Terminal 1A (later redesigned Terminal 2) on July 1, 1994, retaining only nine of its original 21 crew members . Delta Air Lines, the leader in newly established land, placed responsibility for arrivals, lost and found, passenger check-in, exit gate, ramp and luggage room, while the Austrian himself continued to carry his own tickets, load control, management duties , Supervision and management.

1994 also marked the purchase of two long-range A-340-200 long-distance ropes that were set for 36 tourist class travelers and 227 registered OE-LAG and OE-LAH. They occasionally served New York for the next decade.

Another change occurred three years later, between February 1997 and 1998, when she moved the check-in counters and its executive office to the terminal 3 door, but otherwise remained in the same marketing alliance.

This year also marked the first time the New York transatlantic ripened enough to support a second port on select days during the summer schedule, with this second flight arriving in 2045 and relocating toward 2205. Typically operated by OE-LAC aircraft, A-310 With a business segment, but of a higher capacity, facilitated contacts with the exit bank from Vienna.

4. Atlantic Excellence:

Once again, after succumbing to airline regulatory deletion and attempting to achieve additional cost reduction synergies, Austrian Airlines combined its JFK operations with its Grandfather Belgie World Airways and Swissair on March 1, 1998, to form the tri-Atlantic Alliance. Although the employees of the three airlines continued to wear their respective uniforms, they operated from single passenger service and load control offices, using a shared Austrian check-in facility, Sabana and Swissair, and handled each other's flights.

During the peak season, 7 daily departures were operated by four airlines, including two to Vienna with Austrian Airlines, two to Brussels with Delta and Sabana, one to Neva with Swissair, and two to Zurich, also with Swissair.

Eight functions have been performed at the Atlantic Excellence Station, including control, arrivals, departures, VIP / special services, ticket sales orders, load control, ramp monitoring and fault shooting. Because Switzerland & # 39; s contract to prepare load sheets for Malev-Hungarian Airlines & # 39; Flights to Budapest, the load control function itself included handling six types of aircraft – 747-300s, A-340-200 / -300s, MD-11s, A-330- 200s, 767-200ERs and A-310-300s often Requiring inter-carrier training.

As was the case once with Austria Airlines, Delta has similarly signed two-letter code sharing agreements with Sabana and Swaysair, but has now taken the former marketing arrangement into full alliance at the JFK Flight Center significant vesting. Delta nevertheless continued to provide laundry and baggage functions for all three Atlantic Excellence airlines.

In August of that year, Austrian Airlines received the first of four longer-range A-330-200 ranges, registered OE-LAM and set for 30 tourist class and 235 economic types, and the type eventually replaced the A-310 300 as its intercontinental workhorse. The four planes, which later operated with a small 24-seat business booth when the Grand Class concept was introduced, registered OE-LAM, OE-LAN, OE-LAO and OE-LAP sports listings.

During the 1998 summer schedule, Austrian fielded the first JFK dual-aircraft type, with the first port normally operated by the A-330 and the second by the A-310.

5. Star Alliance:

Although envisioning the ultimate "Swiss solution", under which all Atlantic Excellence ground operations team was delivered to the service provider, the incident never occurred.

Rumors, running around the station like gentle warnings of a pending storm, swept the atmosphere in mid-1999. A new strategy looming on the horizon and its seeds, planted long before its bloom, seemed multi-faceted and encompassed.

In June 1999 Delta Lines Air and Air France established the foundational foundation of a new global alliance, later called SkyTeam, thereby dissipating the 25-month Austrian / Delta / Sabana / Swissair Atlantic Excellence agreement, which was expired in August 2000.

Despite a ten percent investment limit, Switzerland nevertheless attempted to acquire additional shares of Austrian Airlines, which prevented Austria's aim of maintaining its identity and independence, forcing it to withdraw from the leading European supplier union in Swisslayer.

Switzerland and Sabana set up an integrated commercial management structure, which again proved to be contrary to Australian Airlines. Independent direction.

Finally, in early 2000, both Sabana and Swissair signed code-sharing agreements with American Airlines, an American airline system that was opposed to Austrian Airlines & # 39; The American feeding strategy.

As a small but profitable international leader of considerable quality, Australasian Airlines nevertheless needed a global alliance to remain profitable and thus signed a corporate agreement with the Star Alliance Lufthansa and United Freight, which came into effect on March 26, 2000.

The largest and longest alliance then consisted of Air Canada, Air New Zealand, All Nippon, Austrian Australia, Austrian Airlines, British Midland, Lauda Air, Lufthansa, Mexico, SAS, Thailand Airways International, Tiroli, United, and Varig, carrying 23 percent. From the world's passenger movement. But more importantly, the decision facilitated continued identity and independent operation, and yet there was the potential for expansion. The decision, expressed as sentiment, was said to be "here we grow again!"

The transition from Atlantic Excellence to the Star Alliance, which began in January 2000, entailed four integral changes.

1). An entirely new IT system (information technology) and a frequent flight plan.

2). The operational transition to a new terminal, to the passenger service office, to the passenger check-in counter, to the load control center for load control and gate at JFK.

3) Code-sharing flights with new airlines and traffic feeds have resulted in the closure of Atlanta Station and the next Chicago opening and reopening of Washington in the US.

4). Immigration training throughout the company in Oberla, Austria, location of Austrian Airlines & # 39; main office.

Star Alliance companies, once again beyond Terminal 1 at JFK, led another change in care, this time from Delta to Lufthansa, which now performed the luggage services and check-in functions, while the Austrian himself continued to work in entrances, ticketing, load control, supervision On ramp and management. As part of a mutual agreement, it also provided these passenger services to Lufthansa for its own Frankfurt departures during non-operational hours. Aircraft loading and luggage functions were initially carried out by Hudson General, later renamed GlobeGround North America.

In another cost-reduction strategy, Austria Airlines moved to a smaller passenger service office on the ground floor of Terminal 1 on September 2002, when the Lufthansa load / ramp control function was granted. No longer serving Lufthansa flights, Austrian crew members were dwindling even further, now to six full-time and two part-time jobs, and daily shift hours reduced from nine to eight.

The largest-capacity Austrian aircraft, the A-340-300 – which accommodated 30 passengers and 261 passengers in the tourist department – also alternately provided service to JFK, especially during the summer 2002 schedule when a late Saturday departure was scheduled. Two such aircraft, registered OE-LAK and OE-LAL, now form part of the fleet.

6. Swissport USA:

The continuing need to reduce costs led to another change of JFK care companies on January 1, 2003, with most of the land services being transferred from Lufthansa to Swissport in the US.

Ahead of the change, Swissport's passenger service team attended the checkout course in Vienna the previous month, while Swissport, which established its luggage services department, attended the World Tracer Basic course later this year, in October.

The Swiss Sports Team, equipped with Austrian Airlines uniform, performed the arrivals, lost and found functions, check-in, passengers, exit gate, load control and ramp control, while Austrian itself continued to take responsibility for ticket sales , Management, supervision and management. .

Load control, initially carried out in Terminal 4 through the SwissS DCS system, was eventually transferred to Terminal 1 and the Lufthansa-Wab system after Swissport operationsmen completed a computerized load control course in Vienna that March.

7. North American Station Training Program

Because most Swiss & # 39; s sports agents had little previous pilot experience and as a result were unfamiliar with Austrian Airlines & # 39; Products and procedures, the writer created a local training program by formulating course descriptions, writing textbooks, developing quizzes and exams, studying the courses themselves and subsequently issuing training certificates to prepare them more for their work.

The program, which tracks its trajectories for an Austrian Airlines flight handling course created in 1989 and the introductory load control training manual written in 1998, evolved into the full-service North American Station Training Program, whose content was updated according to planes, system, procedure and alliance change, including the four-year curriculum. Initial passenger service "," ramp inspection certification "," load control licensing "and" aviation management ".

In the end, 27 passenger service instructions, ramp inspection, load control, air cargo and airport management stations, two station histories and 28 curricula, resulted in 63 courses being taught to Austria Airlines and Austrian airlines handling an airline. , Lufthansa, Passenger Care Services / Maca, SAS, Servair and Swissport at eight North American stations in Atlanta, Cancun, Chicago, Montreal, New York, Punta Cana, Toronto and Washington.

The program, which soon evolved into the equivalent of "Aviation University" and was often cited as a reason why Swissport people were eager to transfer to Austrian Airlines, proved to be a tool in their career, facilitating or accepting it by other airlines. .

8. Boeing and Lauda Air to JFK:

JFK, which has so far been exclusively served by Austrian Airlines and its fleet of A-310, A-330 and A-340 Airbus, received the Lauda Air 767 regularly scheduled operation during its passenger period during the summer of 2004. The driver of the car is Nicky Lauda and is considered Australian Airlines & # 39; Competing in the early part of history. However, in the following year its frequency quadrupled and during 2007 it completely replaced the 17-year-old Airbus service.

Lauda 767 in the summer of 2004, operating as a supplement to the daily Austrian frequency during the 11-week period, from June 26 to September 5, was scheduled to arrive at 2055 on Saturday evenings and depart 25 hours later at 2200 on Sunday.

In order to prepare the station for the additional service, local Boeing 767 passenger services and Boeing 767 load control courses were created and transferred to Swissport personnel.

Because Lufthansa technical staff did not hold 767 licenses, its maintenance was adhered to Delta Air Lines, which operated all 767 series -200-, -300-400-400-, and made extensive night stops and security before pushing aircraft back to one terminal's hard status , Where security seals were applied to all access doors. Charged equipment was washed and prepared the next evening.

Because of the then 36-passenger capacity of Amadeus in the Class 36, it was difficult to sell the late exit at the business cabin without significant marketing promotion and reduced fare, while cargo space loading was limited to four doors in the forward compartment. The planes themselves operated with a combination of heavy Lauda Air and Star Alliance stars.

During the summer 2005 schedule, from June 14 to September 2, 767-300 provided up to four additional weekly frequencies, resulting in a total of 11, with the A-330 correcting the early and late 767-300 departures. .

By 2007, the type had completely replaced the A-330 and A-340 fleets, but appeared in several configurations. OE-LAE, -LAY and -LAZ planes, for example, accommodated 36 businesses and 189 in economics, while those listed OE-LAX and LAW respectively exhibited 30 and 200 seats. The OE-LAT jets, which offered the highest capacity of the six, included ten additional seats from the last two, for the completion of a 240-passenger train.

9. Central load control:

At the end of 2006, JFK introduced a concept known as a central load control system (CLC), and the station, like the atomic nucleus, became the core of everything.

Michael Steinbugg's brain, then JFK station manager, procedure, following trends set by Swiss International in New York, Lufthansa in Cape Town, and SAS in Bangkok, originated from a previous research project investigating cost reduction measures by a large department and single load control in Vienna or regional departments. The latter, however, involved language and time barriers.

Having gained extensive experience in creating procedures and operational practices as a former Aircraft Care Manager, he is well versed in weight and balance issues.

He sought to apply this knowledge and at the same time try to fix the system's adjustment and communication difficulties encountered in the SAS-Bangkok settlement in Washington, he faced this station, which, like JFK, already used the Lufthansa-WAB system. In doing so, he paved the way for the many crossings to come by making a number of mast trips to determine local procedures that match stations and then drafting a detailed pamphlet pertaining to them. The first major flight issue for Washington Flight, OS 094, was created on November 1, 2006.

Charlie Schreiner, then head of Austria Airlines' load control, signaled the event afterwards by sending the following telex.

"With Austrian Airlines 094 operating system flight on November 1," he wrote, "our first line station was connected to a standard centralized load control process with ULDs. All activities for operational flight preparation, load planning, ULD coordination and WAB system documentation , Including the load sheet transferred to the cockpit via ACAR, was successfully controlled by our JFK station yesterday. "

However, the balance of the CLC program included a phase implementation. In May of the following year, the service was inaugurated from Chicago. Since it could now be considered a "new" station, it made sense that its load sheet would be integrated into the CLC system in the first place, and despite computer system differences, was successfully adjusted with the first flight on May 29 after procedural changes.

When these cities were addressed by JFK, it was decided to incorporate the latest North American station, Toronto, whose first major load sheet was issued on July 1.

שלושה בקרי עומס ייעודיים לאוסטריאן איירליינס מסוויספורט, שניים מהם עבדו ביום נתון בעונת שיא הקיץ, הקימו את צוות מערכת בקרת העומס המרכזית.

מאז שילוב התחנה הרביעית, ייצרה JFK כ -120 גיליונות עומס בחודש, והמערכת המצליחה ביותר הניבה יתרונות רבים.

בראש ובראשונה היא הניבה חיסכון ניכר. כל הטיסות יצאו בזמן ביחס לתוכנית העומס שלהן והכנות גיליון העומס וכל ארבע הטיסות בצפון אמריקה טופלו באופן מבצעי על ידי בקר עומס יומי אחד בלבד יותר ממה ש JFK השתמשה לצורך יציאה יחידה. כל דוחות הוראות הטעינה וגיליונות העומס נוצרו בנוסף על ידי מערכת Lufthansa-WAB, מה שהעניק לווינה גישה מיידית לכל הנתונים והתיעוד הקשור בבקרת עומס.

10. בואינג 777:

כשאוסטריאן איירליינס הפכה את הדף של לוח הזמנים של חורף 2008-2009 ב -29 במרץ, JFK שדה את פעולת בואינג 777-200ER הראשונה שלה, מטוס הקיבולת הגדול ביותר של הספק והסוג הבסיסי החמישי ששירת את ניו יורק אחרי ה- A- 310, A -330, A-340 ו- 767.

המטוס, שנרכש במקור על ידי לאודה אייר, הוגדר עבור 49 מחלקות עסקים ו -258 נוסעי רכבות, אם כי שתי דוגמאות מאוחרות יותר, בהן היו משקולות ברוטו גבוהות יותר וסידורי נוסעים מותאמים, התאכסנו ב 260 נוסעים במחלקת תיירים בעשרה עד שלוש, ארבע-ארבע -שלושה, תצורות.

במהלך ששת החודשים האחרונים שבין אפריל לספטמבר 2009, הטיסה היחידה הובילה 34 אחוז יותר נוסעים מגיעים ויוצאים, יחד עם השלמות מוגברות משמעותית של מטען ודואר, בהשוואה לתקופה המקבילה אשתקד, בה נעשה שימוש ב- 767. ארבעת ה- 777 בצי היו רשומים OE-LPA, OE-LPB, OE-LPC ו- OE-LPD.

11. רכישה של לופטהנזה:

שנת 2009 הייתה שנה מרכזית עבור חברת אוסטריה איירליינס, הן מקומית והן כלל מערכתית. בגלל ההאטה הכלכלית העולמית, עליית מחירי הדלק, שחיקת התשואות והתחרות החזקה במערב אירופה מצד ספקים בעלות נמוכה, איים על הכדאיות הפיננסית שלה והמשך קיומה כחברה, למרות אסטרטגיות קודמות שכללו מכירת A-330 ו- A- צי 340, מצמצם את מערך התוואי שלו לטווח הארוך, ויישם מספר תוכניות ארגון מחדש. המושיע שלה, בצורה של הסכם עם לופטהנזה-גרמני איירליינס, איפשר לה להמשיך לפעול, שכן היא לקחה על עצמה את חובה ורכשה את מרבית מניותיה.

ב -28 באוגוסט אישרה הנציבות האירופית רשמית את לופטהנזה-גרמני איירליינס & # 39; רכישת קבוצת אוסטרינס איירליינס. האסטרטגיה, שהורכבה מכ -500 מיליון יורו מחברת האחזקות המוצהרת הנחוצה לארגון מחדש והמיזוג בין שני הספקים, סללה את הדרך לשילוב האוסטרי באגף לופטהנזה עד ספטמבר. אולם כדי להשיג את החסינות הנדרשת נגד מונופולים, לופטהנזה עצמה נאלצה להסכים לוותר על משבצות טיסות מפתח ולהקטין את מספר השירותים בין וינה לבריסל, קלן, פרנקפורט, מינכן ושטוטגרט.

עבור חברת אוסטריאן איירליינס, אשר תהפוך לאחת מכמה חברות תעופה אירופאיות עצמאיות של לופטהנזה, היא סימנה על הישרדות כלכלית, בסיס כלכלי משופר, עלויות סינרגיה, כמו רכישת דלק משותף וכלי טיס, וגישה ל לופטהנזה. רשת מכירות ונתיבים בינלאומית רחבה. הקמת וינה כמוקד ביצועים גבוהים להזנת תנועה לבעליה החדשה וצפופה מערכת התוואי המרכזית והמזרח אירופית נחשבה לחוזקה האוסטרי בתוך המערכת.

כתוצאה מבעלות זו התרחשו גם שינויים מהותיים בצפון אמריקה.

בטורונטו ובוושינגטון, למשל, לקחה לופטהנזה את כל היבטי הטיפול בקרקע.

בניו יורק פוטרו יותר ממחצית הצוות המועסק במטה צפון אמריקה בוויטסטון, ואילו המתקן שלו, שנמצא בקומה החמישית של אוקטגון פלאזה ונחשב ל"מבצר "שלו כמעט רבע מאה, היה סגור עם עובדיה הנותרים לעבור למשרד של לופטהנזה במזרח אחו, לונג איילנד, משרד.

ב- JFK עצמה, אוסטריאן איירליינס קרגו עברה באותה מידה למתקן לופטהנזה ב -1 בנובמבר, ו -16 יום לאחר מכן העבירה שוויצ'פורט את הלפיד לטיפול בקרקע לידי לופטהנזה-גרמני איירליינס.

מייקל סטיינבוגל, מנהל תחנה זו במשך ארבע שנים, הועלה למנהל חשבון מפתח בצפון אמריקה, אך ארבע עמדות לשמירת מכירת כרטיסים הוחלפו כשעוד לופטהנזה קיבלה על עצמה את אותן פונקציות, וצמצמה את חברת התעופה האוסטרית & # 39; צוות לשני חברים בלבד (המחבר כלול), שקיבלו חוזים מוגבלים לחצי שנה שפקעו ב- 15 במאי 2010. השתלבו לסירוגין במבצע ולוח הזמנים של לופטהנזה, הם טיפלו בטיסותיהם תוך היכרות עם עובדי לופטהנזה עם הנהלים שלהם אך לאחר תקופת מעבר זו, שוחררו באותה מידה מהעבודה.

"נוכחות אחידה אדומה" של אוסטריה איירליינס האחרונה, "מיוצגה על ידי אנשי אוסטריה איירליינס בלבד או אנשי סוויספורט, התרחשה ב -15 בנובמבר, והמשרד בקומה הראשונה בטרמינל א ', עד כה" בית "עבור הנהלת המוביל והנוסע, נוסע שירות, בקרת עומסים מרכזית, הזמנות מכירת כרטיסים ושירותי מזוודות / מחלקות אבודות ונמצאו, הוותר על שלוש שולחנות במתקן לופטהנזה, שתיים מהן היו תחנות ניהול חובות הממוקמות במפלס הראשי ואחת מהן הייתה שמורה ל תפקיד מנהל חשבון מפתח ברמה התחתונה במשרד פעולות התחנה.

נראה כי כל הדברים באים למחזור. האירוע, שהסתיים למעשה 21 שנה של נוכחות אוסטרית איירליינס האוטונומית, סימן את שובו של המוביל לשילובו ב -1938 עם לופטהנזה ובסדר הטיפול בשטח הקרקע בשנת 2000 ב- JFK.

12. חוזקות תחנת JFK:

בשנת 2009 הפעילה אוסטריאן איירליינס 666 טיסות הגעה ויציאה ב- JFK ונשאה 158,267 נוסעים פנימה ויוצאת, גידול של 18.42 אחוזים בהשוואה לשיעור הקודם, בעוד שהיא הפעילה 5,005 טיסות הגעה ויציאה וסחבה 1,074,642 נוסעים במהלך שבע השנים בתקופת השנה, בין 2003 ל -2009, שוויצ'ספורט ארה"ב קיבלה את הטיפול בקרקע בה.

JFK, לאחר שביאה את מזג האוויר בכמה בריתות של חברות תעופה, מיקומי טרמינל, מערכות מחשבים, חברות טיפול, סוגי מטוסים, ומספר הולך וגדל של אנשי אוסטריאן איירליינס במשך נוכחותה בת 21 השנים האחרונות, סגר למעשה את שעריה, אחרון תחנות צפון אמריקה שלה עשיתי זאת.

לאורך הנוכחות של למעלה משני עשורים, היא טיפלה בחמישה סוגי מטוסים – איירבוס A-310, איירבוס A-330, איירבוס A-340, בואינג 767, ובואינג 777; נקט ארבע אסטרטגיות – הפעולה הראשונית והעצמאית שלה; הסכם המניות של קוד האוויר של דלתא; תחנת המשאית אטלנטיק אקסלנס; והאינטגרציה של Star Alliance; פעלו מארבעה מסופי JFK – טרמינל אחד, טרמינל שני, טרמינל שלוש ובניין ההגעה הבינלאומי; טופלו על ידי שלוש חברות – דלתא אייר ליינס, לופטהנזה-גרמני איירליינס וסוויצ'פורט ארה"ב; והשתמש בשתי מערכות מחשב.

מכיוון שכישוריהם ויכולותיהם של רבים מאנשי הצוות שלה הופנו לתוצאות יצירתיות וחדשניות במהלך הפרק האחרון לקיומה, JFK קבעה כמה הישגים, שחלקם אפשרו לו למלא תפקיד גרעיני יותר ויותר בצפון אמריקה. They can be subdivided as follows.

The North American Station Training Program, comprised of the Passenger Service, Ramp Supervision Certification, Load Control Licensing, and Management disciplines, was instrumental in the educational preparation of all entry-level employees, enabling them to perform their designated functions with sufficient procedural knowledge or climb the ladder all the way to management, if so needed. The textbooks and courses were subsequently used to duplicate this success at Austrian Airlines' other North American stations.

The Centralized Load Control (CLC) Department, entailing the preparation of loading instruction/reports and load sheets for the four North American stations of Chicago, New York, Toronto, and Washington, was highly successful and once involved four aircraft types: the Boeing 767, the Airbus A-330, the Airbus A-340, and the Boeing 777.

The Baggage Services/Lost and Found Department, under the direction of Omar Alli, served as a model for other stations and earned a lost baggage rating that became the envy of them. Omar himself often traveled to other stations in order to provide restructuring guidance for their own Baggage Services Departments.

The Ticket Sales-Reservations counter, under the direction of Sidonie Shields, consistently collected significant amounts of annual revenue in ticket sales, excess baggage, and other fees.

The visible presence of Austrian Airlines, in red uniforms, to the passenger, whether worn by Austrian Airlines or Swissport staff, cemented its identity.

The several annual special flights, which sometimes posed significant challenges, but were always successfully executed, included those carrying the Rabbi Twersky group, the American Music Abroad group, the IMTX group, the Vienna Boys' Choir, the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, and Life Ball, the latter with its high-profile celebrities, colorful characters, and pre-departure parties.

The special events, often fostering a "family" atmosphere among its own and Swissport staff, included the annual "Year in Review" series, the Pocono Mountain ski trips, the summer pool parties, the birthdays, the Thanksgiving dinners, and the Secret Santas at Christmas.

And, finally, the daily briefings, jokes, laughs, raps, camaraderie, friendships, and human connections continually emphasized and acknowledged the true souls behind everyone as they cohesively worked toward the airline's and the station's common goals.

Michael Steinbuegl, who assumed command as JFK Station Manager in September of 2005, had cultivated the environment and orchestrated the steps that had allowed every one of these accomplishments to be made.

13. Two Decades of Elasticity:

Austrian Airlines, hitherto among the smallest European airlines, had to assume a considerable degree of necessary "elasticity" during its 21 years at JFK, ebbing and flowing with the ever-changing turbulence created by prevailing market conditions, seeking financial benefit, synergistic strength, market niche, alliance realignment, and ultimate change of ownership. Defying Darwinian philosophy, whose "survival of the fittest" prediction is often translated as "survival of the largest," Austrian Airlines had, despite numerous, necessary redirections, proven the contrary, perhaps prompting a rewording of the philosophy to read, "survival of the smallest," if four short words were added-namely, "as a global player."

Toward this end, the latest strategy enabled the carrier to survive. For station JFK and its staff, however, it did not.


Because I had been hired by Austrian Airlines two months before its inaugural transatlantic flight from JFK occurred on March 26, 1989 and subsequently held several positions there throughout its 21-year history, I felt singularly qualified, as a lifetime aviation researcher, historian, and writer, to preserve its story in words. It is, in essence, my story. It is what I lived. And what I leave…

UAVs and their use by government and private entities

A drone is a remote controlled unmanned aerial vehicle that can also be used for specific work in addition to just flying ability. UAVs are used to record photographs and video from above. Some are used for scientific or technical measurements. Some are weapons and used as weapons. Other things are used to carry cargo and mail between places. The latest development is UAVs that carry installation and repair tools.

The basic drone technology consists of some kind of power plant, some propulsion mechanism, some steering mechanism, some sensors that identify a place and path and a transmitter and receiver unit for transmitting and receiving steering and recording signals. UAVs are available in all shapes that you can find in larger aircraft, and in all kinds of Exotic forms, such as prolonged airships, disks, triangles, donuts, stars or can resemble large insects or birds.

Small or light UAVs are usually driven by propellers connected to battery powered electric motors. Regularly one produces very light UAVs, powered by solar panels, which can fly in the air for several weeks in principle. Some UAVs are held above the air by the gas gas lighter, such as idlers, which also allows the UAV to be able to hold itself in the air for a long time. Larger or heavier UAVs are mostly operated by combustion engines of some kind, such as piston engines, turboprop engines or turbo-jet engines.

It is also possible to build nuclear-powered drones that can stay for days or weeks, especially if those drones are partially manufactured as gas-filled wastewaters. Such nuclear power sources should not be considered atomic reactors. The energy source can be special isotopes that radiate intensely and thus generate enough heat to propel the drone. Some of these isotopes emit mostly alpha or beta rays that can be protected without heavy armor.

Because most UAV uses are kept secret or just not publicly announced, it is difficult to give a full description of their scope and who uses them, but it does provide a fairly clear picture based on official sources, journalistic and scientific articles, drone manufacturers' advertisements, and stories of people coming into contact with UAVs used.

Most UAVs are probably used by civilian authorities and property owners for various types of home surveillance, such as border control, road traffic tracking, wildfire detection, aerial photography, geographic mapping, pipeline control, power grid control and audience behavior. "Tim is more and more used to deliver views at sports championships. Police forces use drones to detect and investigate crimes, a practice that also appears to involve the direct spying of drones on private citizens in their home.

Military forces have long used UAVs to track foreign territory and combat zones. The use of small tactical UAVs to deliver bombs, missile launches, and shootings is old, but is of constant importance. By 2014, such drones have been widely used to investigate terrorist bases, bomb such bases and kill people suspected of terrorism. A classic surveillance drone used for both military and military functions is the Global Hauk RQ-4. MQ-8 (A, B and C) are examples of the smaller surveillance drones used in local operations and obtained from small vessels or dry bands.

Larger long-range drones, similar to bomber aircraft, are used for both tracking and destruction of ground-level targets and at sea. A more advanced fighter jet than an airplane. A solid Israeli drone is a large UAV and long range fighter range, capable of keeping itself above 70 hours.

Effective laser guns have been invented to date, and laser-drone-armed drones are likely to be a reality by 2014, at least in experimental versions, but these drones must be in some degree because the laser needs a large turbine-powered power generator.

However, the technical control mechanisms are probably not so advanced by 2014 that it has been able to build fully reliable super-sonic UAVs with fighter jets capabilities. However, unmanned supernatural stealth jets have been under construction for some time and 2014 has long been flown to the test, and among those bombers fired by North America's Rup-Grumman x47B is close to deploying realistic tests of aircraft carrier combat operations by 2014.

British company BAE is developing a super-son stealth drone blast in a project called Ternis. French producer Desult along with other European participants are working on a similar project, called nEUROn. Both projects will produce experimental versions that are airborne for testing by 2014. There is speculation that the sixties generations of aircraft The battle will be either unmanned or can be manned or as drones depending on the choice. Lockheed-Martin Skunk Works and Boeing Corporation Phantom Works are the U.S. leaders in combat vehicles, including unmanned aerial vehicles.

Available information probably indicates that Lahid Martin is developing unmanned fighter jets that use much of the same technology as the super-vertical fighter plane, F35B, super fighter, and that they also develop a hippie-high unmanned spy aircraft. . It makes sense to think that this hypersonic plane will also get bombing capabilities.

UAVs that mimic birds or other small animals have been developed and can be used for spying, shooting or injecting poison at targets. There are rumors that such UAVs are already being used by some authority units. Rumors can tell that even developed and folding drones similar to insects in shape and size are being developed. Apparently, micro-technology has not yet reached the point where such drones can be made, but the physical possibility of producing such drones exists.

The United States plans to allow drones to be manufactured and powered by solar panels to be permanently placed in the upper regions of the atmosphere. Such drones can be lowered to avoid clouds and toured the area, which is impossible to do with satellites. However, high-altitude flying drones operating for days or weeks, powered by nuclear energy, have long been used. UFO sightings seem to be pointing in that direction.

You can ask how often people see drones in flight or use by 2014. Of course, there are no statistics on it. Sometimes people see flying objects that they obviously sell as drones. It will usually be difficult to decide what looks like. Most UFO reports by 2014 are likely caused by drones.

Because at least larger UAVs are similar to other air traffic, they are obliged to keep headlights and other means to warn of a collision, but because government instances that operate UAVs usually want to keep the flight secret, such headlights may only be lit when other traffic is present In the neighborhood, or when operators want a visual connection. This type of intermittent light emission is typical of many classic UFO sightings.

The UAV flight pattern used for surveillance and interrogation will also mimic the pattern seen by objects in UFO reports: Sometimes they fly forward at different speeds, sometimes they stop and just hover, they often change direction, they will come from the top, do some maneuvers nearby The ground then flies up and away.

UAV lights can also be used to illuminate targets, usually in the field, for the purpose of recording images, which are also seen in classic UFO stories. Many UAVs also have the shape of a classic UFO. Moreover, drones will make little noise, the feature Also known as UFOs.

Slavery in Ancient Greece

That golden age, which, according to the late comedy writers, was not yet slave, should be sought at a very young age. As far as tradition goes, slaves have always existed in countries around the Aegean, where capturing slave traffic was so easy and Phoenicians were the teachers and forerunners.

Homer wore slavery of special prominence in two characters: Aumaus, who opposes bandits and robes outside his own status as a piece of property, and the glorious Auricle. Homer, it is true, deals only with royal courts and great leaders. It is difficult to determine to what extent he saw a relationship in the works and in his hands on a slave farm; However, the poet no doubt regarded the farm work as sincere not as touching but as beneficial. Apart from the newly considered subjects, agriculture was probably almost exclusively in the hands of free people as early as the late ninth century.

At the other end of the scale, the holding classes came to disdain for workers and workers, acquiring the same anti-Nazi approach that saw the noble athletics games as their only worthy life goal. This nobility somehow got the best land, occasionally on all the land within the city-state realm, and brought the landless free people to experience it for them. But it is possible that these heavy farm chests preserved the memory of better days their ancestors once enjoyed, while living in girls, before the relentless polis was founded.

Once the settlement was in full swing, many undoubtedly continued to escape hatred and bondage. And the more the colonies were ready to supply slaves, the easier it was to fill the gaps in the ranks of exploration work, as these colonies lay mostly on beaches where slaves were trapped from the interior. In the Lenin wars against the Lenins, the victors killed the great men and sold the women and children, probably abroad. When spared from the men, they did not keep them as domestic slaves but to work the mines, or held them high ransom.

Because many areas were fully dependent on slave labor, war was too irregular and a source of uncertainty certainly needed; Only trade is guaranteed regularity. Keeping a mature Greek captive as a slave in one's home was undoubtedly difficult and dangerous. In most cases we find that the slaves held in houses or fields were of barbaric origin.

In rural areas where people mostly live, workers have been free for quite some time; Among locals and foci, the youngest in the family used to serve the eldest or eldest. They did not hold slaves until shortly before the Holy War in the fourth century. When Polis developed his full potential he did so through slave labor. And who, as a free man, worked on farms or in a rented town found the idea of ​​citizenship out of reach. Indeed, the free man could hardly find any market for his services because the slaves and the metricans (resident aliens) fulfilled the need. Such a guy preferred to look for a job from day to day to be under a pledge, which was a kind of slavery for him, in that it made him feel dependent.

Where and in which countries did the slaves first come to be servants in households and workers on farms and handicrafts? When and where are the slaves first supervised by slaves? Large organizations that exploit masses of workers, such as mines for example, have probably always been operated by slave laborers.

Slaves came from a variety of sources. Scythians, ghettos, Lydians, Phrygians, Pepelagons, Krians, Syrians filled houses and Greek farms. Careful buyers tried to get every slave to another nation, which was easy to do where only three or four were used. Not sure if the barbarian slave traders drew more on their people or prisoners of war or on slave hunting to supply the market.

In the glamorous days of Greece, even a very cultivated Helen could have been a slave of another Greek who fell into the grip of a powerful enemy or pirate. Once one became a slave, citizenship or high birth was not saved. Fado and Plato both suffered in this fate, the first in his youth, the last when he was already a famous philosopher. They were both redeemed. Occasionally a second husband may speculate on the prospect of redemption. Diogenes stayed with the Corinthian Seniades, later to become a volunteer.

In the fifth century, the average price for a regular slave was two servings, with the mina being equal to one hundred drachmas. In the fourth century, one and a half and five was considered reasonable, which showed that supply was stable and plentiful. Still more slaves would be raised at home to complete their overseas purchases. But breeding slaves were not considered profitable; indeed, slave marriage (little more than concubines and barely tolerated by the gentlemen) was not considered helpful unless the good slaves were desirable More through their children for domestic service and well-being.

One did not expect many of the slave children. Annual attrition was considered ten percent, and one naturally wanted to keep one’s slaves as beneficial animals. One saw a friend of a friend suffering from distress or disappearing without much concern; But one took one slave to the doctor and nursed him, if he died, one lamented and considered it a loss.

We may ask what happened when an area so impoverished that it could no longer afford to buy slaves, especially as the number of freedom-born workers plummeted as they became more loathsome to work. Apparently, the country soon became a waste.

Later, Cappadocia, Friggies and Lydians usually did the baking because of their skill in it. In large estates she worked as superintendent of the others, and of slavery was one of the stewards who was carefully laid down and treated gently and discreetly. Aristotle assumed that slaves entrusted with dealing with the more responsible jobs should be treated fairly, giving them the usual healthy and good food. Larger households needed Dorney Doors to check on things brought in and out. A slave who was no longer useful for another job could well have handled it.

Sophocles' father's slaves & # 39; They are all builders and successful, those of Isocrates & # 39; Dad were all flutist makers. Some of the workshops may employ hundreds of slaves, depending on the business and the state of the periods. The mines had many thousands of slaves, which are the property of the state or of private owners. Citizens worried about the poor existence of these slaves only when they threatened to become dangerous. A document to which you wish Xenophon did not glamorously write to Athenian citizens how profitable it would be to employ more slaves in the mines, for with ten thousand they would take a hundred talents a year, and by increasing that number everyone would be living without work.

As if the number of slaves in homes and attic fields was not enough, Xenophon thinks the state should include at least three slaves in the money mines per citizen, sixty thousand good at that time; So Athens will be even more organized and effective in the war. These proposals are no less stupid than the encouragement given to aliens or resident therapists, who were to lure Athens in large numbers. How expensive it was for Athens to live on this kind of income! One unlucky battle that robs the lives of many civilians would have allowed caregivers to become masters of the state that were already undermined in the literal sense.

These matics were Lydians, Phrygians, and Syrians of origin, as were many of the slaves; In part, they may have been descendants of slaves who were freed, and a number of slaves of domestic mines and Maccabi money, probably released. Xenophon finally wonders whether approval should be sought for his proposals in Dodona and Delphi, and if approved, under the auspices of which gods they should be executed.

It is hard for us to think of Greece being between four and five million free men and ten million slaves, almost every foreign extraction (Hellwald); Of the roof owners who have four times as many slaves as free slaves (Curtis), to say nothing of individual industrial cities like Corinth where the free members were one-tenth of the population; The state of Corinth was supposed to have 460,000 slaves and 40,000 full aegina.

No one has ever been blind to the great dangers this slavery entails. In truth, the masses that sometimes took over entire cities were not slaves as the word used to describe them, but oppressed the natives. The great slave wars in Sicily really came under Roman rule when the Latipondia system greatly increased the number of slaves. Parallel to the second rebellion in Sicily, the slaves in the attic mines, which now become many looted masses, rebelled (about 100 BC), after killing their guards and seizing the Acropolis in Sonomium they continued to destroy the land.

The larger the number of slaves in the state, the more severe the discipline and the desire to escape and the more vengeful revenge. In each war, people feared that large numbers of slaves would break their handcuffs. More than twenty thousand slaves, most of them skilled craftsmen, and hence the most valuable, escaped from their Athenian masters, and were hard pressed in their defeat in Sicily and the conquest of Decalium by King Aggis and his Spartan forces. The strategy of the war included stirring up the enemy slaves for rebellion; Hence anyone who could somehow get along with it would have removed his slaves along with the rest of his family across the border for security when an enemy threatened to invade. The winner of the days of engagement freed the kitchen slaves and brought in their masters.

Even in a time of peace, the people had to bear the consequences of the fact that all the free men in the more developed cities and districts brought labor with all their might. As you can see, there were better and more comfortable conditions in some places, but Batika knew that, as a rule, slaves were mean to their masters. Basically, having a slave is fair by the proximity of his neighbor who was also a slave.

Plato says: Citizens serve each other as voluntary bodyguards. Wealthy city dwellers who have many slaves live without fear because the whole city is ready to help every single person. But if some god had to transfer a fifty-slave owner along with his family and all his property out of town to a wasteland no stranger would help, what a fear he would have his slaves send him. He will have to be nice to some, make promises to them and release them for no reason; He will be flattered by his runs or their victimization.

A slave owner whose slaves knew of a wrong he committed could look upon himself as the most miserable of all men, being a life-long hostage and not in a position to punish them, no matter what they did; Sometimes they might be released because they know it. It follows that an intelligent slave is even considered dangerous, and especially so when he is tainted by the mentality of free citizens.

The fact that the slaves were barbaric or semi-barbaric a priori qualified the treatment they received. This fact also caused Plato and Aristotle to classify them at a low theoretical level even though their motives are not explicitly formulated. That Aristotle was gentle and concealed to them, as his will and last witness testifies, repeats himself in his honor. The slave workers branched out against pity for the masses of people that surrounded themselves, whose lives were worse than death. Laws prevented the Lord from deliberately killing and raping his slaves, perhaps less for their protection than for preventing him from being ignored; Otherwise, he could discipline and abuse them in any way he wanted.

Good luck to all the slaves was the very presence of that most wretched class, the slave mines, who for centuries have been treated in no way in any way possible in humans. They provided only the things necessary to keep them alive and in a certain power; When not at work, they were probably permanently shackled. Even ordinary slaves were often shackled, not for disciplinary reasons but to prevent their escape.

That a slave preferred to be a drug on the farm over being a member of a household in an urban household, undoubtedly stemmed from his generally rural origins, and under his logical sense his share was as tolerable as he could have expected if he had returned home. The shepherd slave was probably treated just as well as a hired hand, because animal husbandry depended so much on his good will.
The herdsmen of Sicily and Lower Italy mentioned by Theocritus were undoubtedly slaves, but still, like Xenophon's farm slaves, had their own property, including sheep and goats, and were able to give beautiful gifts. Arcadians gave lavish events to which they invited both gentlemen and their slaves, served them the same dishes, and mixed their wine in the same bowl (crater). From time to time, the masters served the slaves in solemnity and played dice with them. When the Greeks learned of the Roman Saturnia, which was the custom, they discovered that it was a thoroughly Hellenic holiday.

The common way to deal with slaves, Xenophon said, was to check for misery through hunger, to banish self-esteem by whips, to avoid treatment with fonts and theft by locking everything that might be.

After the Peloponnesian War, Athens slaves were bold and free in their behavior. Their dresses were like those of the poorer Matikis and citizens, so they could hardly be distinguished as they all had quite the same look. They were often better off, thanks to their property, which, judging by the late comedies, was often quite enough. After the defeat of Sharona, the population of Athens intended to free the slaves, raise anxiety about the indices and restore their dignity to the shamed.

During the time of the slavery, the slaves were more courageously vocal than the citizens of many cities; They also seemed to attend the theater, occasionally attending the attic mystery ceremonies, and as the partisan spirit rose, they even made their way to the popular assembly.

In contrast, in highly cultivated Athens, the slave can be at any moment most reminiscent of his true status. Some, Plato says, do not trust their slaves at all, and so often and often they whip them, whereby they really enslave their souls. Moreover, there were also judicial tortures of slaves, to which the Athenians are presumed to have resorted quite frequently. In lawsuits, even in civil lawsuits, a litigant could file his own slaves to testify on his behalf in torture or require his opponents to bring his slaves to court to testify against him in torture.

With regard to his demand that slaves be sacrificed to his victims, the Lecturer calls the Lycorgus, whose crude emotional appeals tell us so much about the court proceeding in the fourth century, calling slave torture by far the most just and appropriate means of obtaining at the bottom of a court case. The Lyocrats thus refused to betray his bad conscience, as if human tendency and affectionate feelings towards his slaves could not play a role. False testimony and false testimony were in Athens at that time. What is certain, once slave torture became legitimate in court proceedings, it was only a matter of time before torture could be applied to non-slaves.

The slave remained a commodity, and occasionally favored him favorably; Like, for example, posing as a pedagogue in charge of the children until she was healthy in adolescence. We must remember that the duty of pedagogy was essentially negative, that is, to protect and protect the child, while the teachers themselves were free men, and especially, although it was possible to hire a free man as a teacher, especially if he was a fellow citizen, it was very difficult to hold him for a long time. Because he was not used to, and hence not fit to live in, this kind of dependency. Choosing from the few or many slaves that best suited to the task should have been fairly easy over the years; Undoubtedly the trust and mutual connection achieved between some masters and slaves, as evidenced by various extracts to outstanding slaves, as well as to faithful sisters who were also slave girls.

Overall, released slaves did not smell good. Obviously, when evil and ungrateful slaves were released, they hated their master above all people because he knew them in their work. In the new attic comedy, the liberated slave appeared quite often as a court accuser (no doubt against his master), as though the pleasure of free speech was included in the charges of access, and what was typical of comedy was probably a routine thing in life. Undoubtedly, the slave so liberated in Lucian's Timon must be liberated to the right of Imperial Rome, as well as Trimlio in Patronius.

Of course, there have been times when the slave can be restrained freely for having mastered some skill in crafts, skills occasionally appear but not necessarily as hereditary in a free Greek family.

And finally, it goes without saying that the slaves performed all the special routine jobs that the state, especially the most organized Athenian state, had to do. They were secretaries, low-ranking officers, police officers, etc. The ambitious free man who had nothing to do with a small office; He was going to be a demagogue or starve. The demo man has only snatched at such offices that he was promised to line his pockets.

Euro India

Air India Highlights 2005

1. Retail villages have been designed in the display area and the air show area. For the convenience of the distinguished dignitaries and visitors the most attractive Indian handicrafts were sold at kiosks in the retail villages. Talented craftsmen have benefited since their beautiful products have been sold in the thousands.

2. Bharat Electronics Limited Concerns All Communication and Infrastructure Support for AERO INDIA 2005. Fax, Mobile Phones, Walkie Talkie, Internet, Announcement System, CCTV, Visual Audio Projection in Convention Halls, Registration Center, etc. There were contributions from Bharat Electronics Limited.

3. The first Euro India Golf Tournament was organized at the Karnataka Golf Association, Bangalore. CII takes the credit for arranging these unique features enjoyed by all visitors around the world.

4. Peter Thompson has designed the 18-hole championship track. The club space is 30,000 square feet. The flood-lit driving range was long in India.

5. The track on the track was prepared using a falling weight defect meter. It should also be noted that glass mesh was used to add power. Bituminous dense concrete using polymer modified bitumen for PCN 40 was a special feature.

6. The Media Center hosted 250 members. It was located in a brand new hanger that had a 4,200-square-foot indoor space.

7. Native American Institute of Science, Bangalore has adopted the subway box technology for subway exhibitions and local AFSY exhibitions. They finished the job in record time.

8. Of the 57 speakers, 33 were from abroad at the seminar.

9. Interesting and informative journals, covering many aviation, aerospace and defense industries, attracted many dignitaries. The colored journals were: Aviation Week Group (New York), Aviation and Naval Space (published from Mumbai), Anakia Defense and Naval Space (New Delhi), World of Defense (New Delhi), Indian Defense Review (New Delhi), Vayu Aerospace Auditing (New Delhi), Indian Aviation – Civil and Military (Mumbai), Indian Defense Yearbook (New Delhi), International Aerospace – Review and Analysis (Mumbai), Intervestnik Publishing (Russia), SP Publications Guide, Private Limited (New Delhi) and Sterling School (Mumbai). These books and books have fascinated visitors for critical information and analysis on protection issues. Each page had valuable data.

10. Indian companies that participated in this show were mainly from Bangalore. Some were from New Delhi.

11. Software companies such as Aster Teleservices (P) Ltd., Sri Amulia Estate 3, 3rd Floor, Carpenter Computer, Hyderabad-1., Autotech Systems (P) Limited, 27, 24 Sharkaki Lake, 5th St, JP Nagar , Bangalore – 560 078., BACHAL Software Limited, HAL Estate, Airport Path, Bangalore – 560 017., CADES Digitech (P) Limited, Anchorage, 100 Richmond Circle Road, Bangalore – 560 025., Com Avia Systems Technologies Private Limited ., Temple Gangia 47 Road, Jalahalli Post, Bangalore – 560 013., Connect Electronics Private Limited, 1878 Road Thipasandra Main Road, Bangalore – 560 075., Datta (I) Private Limited Printing, No. 19, New 16 Old, Aza Gowder Road, West Mambalam, Chennai – 600 033., Datason (B) Private Limited, 1006, A Narayana Reddy Complex, BEML Road, Thippasandra New, Bangalore – 560 075., Integrated Digital Systems 4B Sundaram 46P Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Road, Kolkatta – 700 016., Q uest, 55 Quest Towers, Whitefield Main Road, Mahadevapura, Bangalore – 560 048., Satyam Computer Serivices Limited, SDC Plot No. 45,46,47 Electronic City, Phase II, KIADB Industrial Area, Bangalore – 560 100., Samtel, 52 Central Community, New Friends Kwai, New Delhi., Shogi Limited Communications, 803 8th Floor Bhavan, 16 KG Marg, New Delhi – 110 001., Sigma Electro Systems, M-83 MIDC, Ambad Nashik-10., Sika interplant systems Limited, 3 Gangadhara Chetty Road 3, Bangalore – 560 042., Silver Software, Plot-23 and 24 EPIP, First Stage KIADB, Whitefield, Bangalore – 560 066., SLN Technologies Private Limited, 889 Cross Road, 7 Main HAL II Stage, Indiranagar, Bangalore – 560 008., Speak Systems Limited, B-49 Electronic Complex, Kushaiguda, Hyderabad – 500 062., Umac Avionics Private Limited, 143 Umac House, 18 A HAL 2nd Stage, Bangalore – 560 008., United Tele coms Limited, 18A / 19 Doddanekundy Post, Mahadevapura Post, Bangalore – 560 048, etc. , There were beautiful pavilions at this great show to reveal their invaluable contribution to aviation, aerospace and Indian technological information. Because Bangalore City is embedded in popular software institutes, many software technocrats have joined each other and established these companies to serve DRDO, HAL, Navy, Air Force, Missile, Aircraft-guided weapon systems, drones, helicopters and electronics.

12. Alpha Design Technologies (P) Limited, Bangalore develops simulation command, control requirements for dry, dry ship systems. They also manufacture night vision devices, simulators, radars, communication systems and other Indian protection needs.

13. Amphenol Interconnect Private India Limited, Bhosari 105 Industrial Zone, Bhosari Pune Manufacturers and markets many types of connectors, cable harnesses and antenna products. They serve military and aerospace, automotive and medical, electronics, wireless infrastructure and mobile devices. They are the leading traders in Indian defense.

14. Apollo Private Limited's computer labs specialize in embedded computing, digital communications and security. In Agni II, LCA they offered their services.

15. Aster Teleservices Private Limited Company of Hyderabad has done a log service for Indian defense units with data acquisition and control, smart cards, LC launcher link, technology fiber optic link, PCI based GPS synchronization, Unimux, manual cable testers, etc.

16. Airdel (India) Limited Limited UK Technical Aviation Development Branches in Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Kanpur, Pune and Bangalore. They produce and provide stability and other parts to the aerospace and commercial industries.

17. India Private Oil Limited Limited supplies lubricant, which is the only one approved by the Army Center. Air Certificate and Certificate, Ministry of Defense. This company is registered with the General Manager of Aeronautical Quality Assurance as a qualified manufacturer of aviation products. He has collaborated with NYCO SA from France. Indian oil company Belmar Lori joined hands to create this unique lubrication for Indian defense and civil aviation.

18. BACHAL Software Limited has the credit of developing simulators, developing and testing real-time embedded Avionics software for safety and mission critical systems used for flight control, flight warning, transmission, weapon use, fuel management, etc. They offer their services to DRDO, HAL, ADA, Indian Army forces besides serving Thales, Rolls Royce, SAGEM, ECE, British Airways, etc.

19. Bijal Petroleum Equipment, headquartered at Ashirwad Industrial Estate 5/210 Road, Ram Mandir, Greg & Wen (WU), Mumbai – 400 104 extends aviation land support and aircraft fuel handling and testing equipment, refueling helicopters for Indian defense.

20. To entertain visitors and to see an aesthetic look, some booths contained luxurious items, handicrafts produced by Central Cottage Industries Corporation of India Limited, Cauvery, Karnataka State Arts and Crafts Emporium. Many visitors from India and beyond have been very enticed by the beauty of every item sold there.

21. Sari is the traditional dress worn by Indian women. From here, he stayed in the silk eiffel bouquets at Bayer India – 2005 to divert attention. Many thousands of well-designed saris were for sale and the VIP women had a fun time at the place. Kraftka Soaps and Detergents (P) Limited also presented their soaps with a pleasant aroma.

22. Nadra International, Mumbai is engaged in export and import, transit trade and represents international companies such as ESL Defense, UK, Douglas SPD, UK, Goodrich & US, Orbit ACS.

23. ComAvia Systems Technologies (P) Ltd. Bangalore performs aviation integration services for higher Native American aircraft programs for LCA, Jaguar, MiG27, etc. They also build integration test rigs and other test solutions consisting of data acquisition and imaging across MIL-STD-1553B interfaces, ARINC429, analog, digital, serial and others.

24. Data Patterns (I) Private Limited, Inc. has developed airborne, marine, ground and space applications such as aircraft mission and aircraft display, computer and missile fire control systems, radar systems, aircraft ATE, spacecraft and spacecraft systems.

25. For DRDO, Department of Space Systems, Systems and Industrial Systems and Space, Pvt Datasol (B). Ltd., Bangalore for very good service in designing, developing and integrating the modern state of modular avionics products, cockpit display products, etc. This is ISO 9001-2000.

26. DRDO 5000 scientists, 25000 technical staff and other scientific supporters and 54 laboratories. The contacts are: Dr.D.Banerjee, Phone 91-011-23016640, Brig Umang Kapoor, Manager, Phone: 91-011-2301-3209, Deputy Chairman Karate DRDO.

27. Dynamic Technologies, Bangalore deals with oak, ITT-36 jet trainer pages; Wing and rear wing body for high-performance, high-performance UAV; control surfaces for Su-30 mki fighter fighters such as vertical fins, stabilizers, canard, fins and ventral cheeks, ground support for military aircraft, servo control equipment for helicopter testing; gear products and brake operating systems Electro-hydraulic for battle tanks Manufacture and assembly of Lakashia airframe structures, non-piloted target aircraft, project hall & # 39; 155-36. Dynamic Space Company will collaborate with HAL to develop Airframe structures for Sukhoi 30 mki fighter jets.

28. Anfro Scan India Ltd., New Delhi markets vapor cycle refrigeration system for armored fighter vehicles, radar liquid cooling systems, antennas, etc. Wave guide dryers, ACIDC brushless and brushless motors, torque motors for radars, radars , Missiles, etc. & # 39 ;. ., Distributors centrifugal battle tanks distributor axes, XIBC armed vehicles etc., heat transfer systems for aircraft, battle tanks, etc., serving HAL, ADA, ECIL, BEL, DRDO, Air Force, Indian Army, BDL, Air India, Thales, Airbus, Eurocopter, MTU, Hugger, LUCAS, Air France, Lufthansa, etc.

29. Silver oxide, nickel, cadmium batteries for Indian military aircraft, helicopters, torpedoes and missiles supplied by High Energy Batteries (I) Ltd., Tamil Nadu. Contact: S.Arunachalam, V.Balasubramaniam, Fax: 91-4339250516 , 91-431-2414455.

30. The range of Terra Vista products designed for the 3D Terrain 9.8 generation marketed by integrated digital systems, Kolkata. These 3D databases are used in war games, situation-conscious analysis, flight simulation, training, etc.

31. It was interesting to note that JS Precisions, Bangalore is created under the Women Entrepreneurship Program. Contact is Ms. Yanti, Fax: 91-080-26637921, Phone: 91-080-266372707. They provide metal, metal and non-metal components for aircraft and aircraft engines. Lock nuts, gaskets, gear accessories, locking washers and the products it supplies to the Air Force, DRDO, Naval Aviation and HAL. More than 800 accurate / non-critical components are manufactured by them.

32. Kumaran Industries, Bangalore manufactures jet engine parts for aviation and aerospace using CNC technology. Precise airframe development and air engine components for LCA, ADA, ALH, 14-seater passenger aircraft, Saras (NAL), ADE, Navy and Air Force are some of the priceless lifts for the Indian Air Force. They gained recognition from foreign companies like Magellan, uTGU technologies. Contact is Mr. Mohan, Manager, Phone: 91-80-23409113, Fax 91-80-23381498. Mr. Parthasarathy is the technical director.

33. Maini Precision Products (P) Ltd., Bangalore serves Honeywell USA, Moog Aerospace UK, WA, Goodrich, USA, Snema moteurs, France etc. by manufacturing mechanical components. Contact: Shakendra Pratap Singh, Fax: 91-80-51272500, 91-80-51272400.

34. The Indian Defense Ministry has approved Max Aviation and Aerospace Ltd., Mumbai to provide and install Avionics, UAVs, CAVs, aircraft and helicopters. This company prides itself on being approved by DGCA, HAL, DGAQA And CHEMILAC and it is enrolled in the Air Force. The Navy and Indian Coast Guard. Their maintenance work is also approved by NAVCOM. ADF, VDR and CUR. Works in cockpit, lighting systems, C&R instruments and airframe components were of quality Contact: Bharat Malchani, Phone: 91-22-26135545, Fax: 91-22-26162613.

35. Merchant Shipping, Indian Army, Navy and Air Force Guard prefer to use dedicated tents for helicopter crew survival, inflatable moods, life jackets, etc., manufactured by Meridian Inflatables Private Limited, Mumbai. Has 25 years of experience and holds ISO 9001. Contact: Maj. Aron Note (retired) Phone: 91-22-28570369, Fax 91-22-28572927.

36. MIDHANI, Hyderabad who has developed 75 alloys in the tremendous efforts of their R&D team.